5 BIGGEST MYSTERIES OF OUR BRAIN



5. What are emotions?
The brain is mostly thought to be an information-processing machine, however they are also responsible for all our emotions. Emotions are measurable physical responses to powerful mental stimuli. Fear is accompanied with an increase in heartbeat and extra muscle tension, just as with anger. On the other hand, emotions are the product of our unconscious. Across all humankind and even other mammals, the expression of basic emotions is remarkably similar. Modern views propose that emotions are the brains quick response to stimuli, which provides us with a plan of action. If you see a giant spider crawling towards you, your brain will direct you to do the right things to avoid being bitten, not recite the periodic table.

4. What is Intelligence?
Unlike, say, memory or emotions, there isnt even a consensus as to what constitutes intelligence in the first place, thats why uncovering the neural networks involved in intelligence has proved difficult. It is widely accepted that there are different types of intelligenceanalytic, linguistic, and emotional, but neuroscientists disagree over whether these intelligences exist independently from one another.

How do billions of neurons work together to manipulate knowledge, simulate life situations, and erase unneeded information? What happens when two concepts fit together and you suddenly see a solution to a problem? Do intelligent people store knowledge in a way that is more distilled, more varied, or more easily retrievable? Recent experiments explore the possible relationship of intelligence to the capacity of short-term memory, the ability to quickly resolve cognitive conflict, or the ability to store stronger associations between facts; the results are not yet conclusive.

3. How is information encoded in the brain?
Neurons are cells that process and transmit information through electrical and chemical signals throughout the brain. These various bits of information are then stored in different parts of the brain, well mostly everywhere, as a neuron in the cortex receives input from up to 10,000 other neurons. Trying to understand what is going on, is like trying to see whats up on a screen by analysing individual high and low voltage transistors.

Experts believe that the hippocampus, along with another part of the brain, called the frontal cortex, is responsible for analysing these various sensory inputs and deciding if they're worth remembering. If they are, they may become part of your long-term memory. How these bits and pieces are later identified and retrieved to form a cohesive memory, however, is not yet known.

2. What is consciousness?
Consciousness, or awareness, can be described as a state of wakefulness. When you wake up in the morning, you might perceive that the Sun is just rising, hear a few birds chirping, and maybe even feel a flash of happiness as the fresh morning air hits your face. In other words, you are conscious. You are aware that you exist. This complex topic has plagued the scientific community since antiquity.

Only recently have neuroscientists considered consciousness a realistic research topic. The greatest brainteaser in this field has been to explain how processes in the brain give rise to subjective experiences. Drugs or diseases can powerfully alter your subjective experiences. How do processes in the brain give rise to these subjective experiences? Will we ever be able to create conscious robots? So far, scientists have managed to develop a great list of questions, but no answers.

1. Free Will Given a certain frame in time
If we'd be able to analyse all the existing particles and forces in the universe, we would be able to tell, frame by frame what happened and what will happen, from the begging until the end. Unfortunately its pretty much impossible. So, if we know the future is already predetermined, is free will even a thing? Or is it simply an illusion? Since antiquity, philosophers were arguing whether it is or not. More recently, physicists entered the debate, but still no one has a clear answer.

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