, pub-6663105814926378, DIRECT, f08c47fec0942fa0 LIST OF VENOMOUS SNAKES FAMILY: VIPERIDAE, VIPERIDS 4289


Subfamily: Azemiopinae
Genus: Azemiops
Azemiops feae* Fea’s viper (Burma, S China, N Vietnam)
7.4.2. Subfamily: Viperinae
Genus: Adenorhinos
Adenorhinos barbouri* Uzungwe Mountain bush viper (SW Tanzania)
Genus: Atheris, bush vipers
Atheris acuminata* Acuminate bush viper (W Uganda)
Atheris anisolepis see Atheris squamiger anisolepis
Atheris barbouri see Adenorhinos barbouri
Atheris broadley* (Cameroon)
Atheris ceratophorus* syn. A. ceratophora (E Tanzania)
Atheris chloroechis* syn. A. chlorechis (Africa from Guinea as far as Gabon)
Atheris desaixi* Ashe’s bush viper (Kenya)
Atheris hindii see Montatheris hindii
Atheris hirsuta* (C?te d’Ivoire)
Atheris hispidus* African hairy bush viper, syn. A. hispida (DRC, isolated patches of
populations in SW Uganda and W Kenya)
Atheris katangensis* Katanga Mountain bush viper (DRC)
Atheris laeviceps see A. squamiger anisolepis
Atheris nitschei* Great Lakes bush viper (E DRC, Rwanda, SW Uganda, Burundi to NW
-- A. nitschei nitschei see A. nitschei
-- A. nitschei rungweensis see A. rungweensis
Atheris rungweensis* Mt Rungwe bush viper (SW Tanzania, NE Zambia, N Malawi)
Atheris squamiger** Rough-scaled bush viper, syn. A. squamigera
-- A. squamiger anisolepis (N Congo-Brazzaville and N Angola)
-- A. squamiger robustus (the province of Orientale, DRC)
-- A. squamiger squamiger (SE Nigeria to NW Angola, DRC to S Uganda, W Kenya,
Atheris superciliaris see Proatheris superciliaris
Atheris subocularis* (Cameroon)
Genus: Bitis, puff or African adders, or African vipers
Bitis albanica** (RSA - E Cape Region)
Bitis arietans*** African puff adder
-- B. arietans arietans African puff adder (Africa, the savannahs from Morocco to
S Africa and Arabia)
-- B. arietans somalica (Somalia, N Kenya, SE Ethiopia)
Bitis armata* (RSA)
Bitis atropoides see B. armata
Bitis atropos** Mountain adder
-- B. atropos atropos Mountain adder (RSA, Swaziland, Lesotho and Zimbabwe)
-- B. atropos unicolor (N Africa)
Bitis caudalis* Horned puff adder (SW Angola, Namibia, Botswana, SW Zimbabwe,
Bitis cornuta** Many-horned adder (W RSA and SW Namibia)
-- B. cornuta albanica see Bitis albanica
-- B. cornuta cornuta see Bitis cornuta
Bitis gabonica*** Gabon viper
-- B. gabonica gabonica Gabon adder (Nigeria, S Sudan, Uganda, W Kenya, S Tanzania,
Mozambique, RSA)
-- B. gabonica rhinoceros see B. rhinoceros
Bitis heraldica* Angolan adder or Bocage’s horned adder (NW and C Angola)
Bitis inornata* Plain mountain adder (N RSA)
Bitis lachesis see B. arietans
Bitis nasicornis*** Rhinoceros viper (N Sudan, Uganda, Congo-Brazzaville, Gabon)
Bitis parviocula** Ethiopian mountain adder (C and SW Ethiopia)
Bitis peringueyi* Peringuey’s adder (Angola and SW Africa)
Bitis rhinoceros*** (Guinea and Sierra Leone to Togo)
Bitis rubida* Red adder (RSA)
Bitis shneideri* Namaqua dwarf adder (Namibia)
Bitis worthingtoni* Kenya horned viper (Kenya)
Bitis xeropaga* Desert mountain adder (NW RSA and SW Namibia)
Genus: Causus, night adders
Causus bilineatus* Two-lined night adder (C Angola, NW Zambia, S DRC, Rwanda)
Causus defilippii* Snouted night adder (the SE coasts of Kenya, E and S Tanzania,
Malawi, Mozambique, E Zambia, Zimbabwe to RSA)
Causus lichtensteinii* Forest night adder (N Guinea, Sierra Leone to W Kenya and S
Causus maculatus* West-African night adder (Senegal and Gambia to Cameroon, S
Chad, Central African Republic and S Sudan)
Causus resimus* Green night adder (C and E Africa)
Causus rhombeatus* Common or rhombic night adder (C Africa)
Genus: Cerastes
Cerastes cerastes** Desert horned viper (Sahara to Arabia)
-- C. cerastes hoofieni (recently reclassified as a separate subspecies - SW Arabian
-- C. cerastes karlhartli, C. cerastes mutila (formerly separate subspecies, recently
included in synonyms of a nominotypic subspecies)
Cerastes gasperettii** Arabian horned viper (Jordan, Iraq, Kuwait, Arabian Peninsula to
SW Iran)
-- C. gasperetti mendelssohni (Jordan and Israel)
Cerastes vipera* Sahara sand viper (Sahara inc. edges)
Genus: Daboia
Daboia russelli*** Russell’s or chain viper, syn. Vipera russelli
-- D. russelli russelli, includes the formerly separate D. r. pulchella and nordicus
subspecies (E Pakistan, India, W Bangladesh, Sri Lanka),
-- D. russelli siamensis, includes the formerly separate D. r. formosensis, limitis, and
sublimitis subspecies (N China, C and S Burma, C Thailand, Taiwan, Indonesia),
Genus: Echis, saw-scaled or carpet vipers
Echis carinatus*** Saw-scaled viper
-- E. carinatus astolae (Astola Island near Pakistan)
-- E. carinarus carinatus Saw-scaled viper (C and S India)
-- E. carinatus multisquamatus (SE Azerbaijan, Iran, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, SW
Tajikistan, N Afghanistan)
-- E. carinatus sinhaleyus (N and E part of Sri Lanka)
-- E. carinatus sochureki (Oman, S Afghanistan, Pakistan, N India)
Echis coloratus*** Palestine saw-scaled viper (the Arabian Peninsula, SE Egypt, Israel,
Jordan, Oman)
-- E. coloratus terraesanctae (recently reclassified as a separate subspecies - Israel and
Echis hughesi*** Hughes’ saw-scaled viper (Somalia)
Echis jogeri*** Joger’s saw-scaled viper (Mali)
Echis leucogaster*** Roman’s saw-scaled viper (Senegal, Mauritania, the southern edge
of Sahara as far as Sudan, SE Morocco, S Algeria)
Echis megalocephalus*** Cherlin’s saw-scaled viper (Eritrea)
Echis multisquamatus see E. carinatus multisquamatus
Echis ocellatus*** West African carpet viper (Senegal, SW Mauritania, S Mali, Sahel as
far as SW Chad)
Echis omanensis*** (E Oman, the United Arabian Emirates)
Echis pyramidum*** Egyptian saw-scaled viper (NE Algeria, Tunisia, coastal Libya as
far as Egypt)
-- E. pyramidum aliaborri (sometimes also listed as a subspecies of E. carinatus) (NE
-- E. pyramidum leakeyi (W Kenya)
-- E. pyramidum lucidus (Tunisia, N Libya, NW Egypt)
-- E. pyramidum pyramidum (NE Egypt, as far as S Sudan, Eritrea, N Somalia and NE
Echis sochureki see E. carinatus sochureki
Genus: Eristicophis
Eristicophis macmahoni*** McMahons desert viper (the Afghanistan and Pakistan
border, E Iran)
Genus: Macrovipera, large Palearctic vipers, formerly Vipera and Daboia genera
Macrovipera deserti*** Desert viper, syn. Daboia (C and S Tunisia, NW Libya, NE
Macrovipera lebetina*** Levantine viper
-- M. lebetina lebetina Levantine viper (Cyprus and Turkey)
-- M. lebetina chernovi (Turkmenistan)
-- M. lebetina obtusa, syn. M. lebetina euphratica (from N Syria across Turkey, Iraq, Iran
and W Pakistan as far as Afghanistan)
-- M. lebetina transmediterranea (Algeria)
-- M. lebetina turanica (NE Iran, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, N Pakistan, N
Macrovipera mauritanica*** Moorish viper, sometimes also listed as a species of
Daboia genus (NW Morocco and N Algeria)
Macrovipera schweizeri*** Cyclades blunt-nosed viper (Milos, Kimolos, Polinos, and
Siphnos islands, Greece)
Genus: Montatheris, Kenya mountain or Hind’s viper
Montatheris hindii* (Kenya)
Genus: Montivipera
A proposal exists that a group containing species from the range of Vipera xanthina (i.e.
V. xanthina, V. albizona, V. bornmuelleri, V. bulgardaghica and V. wagneri) and
Vipera raddei (i.e. V. raddei, V. albicornuta and V. latifii) should be isolated and
listed under a separate genus Montivipera.
Genus: Proatheris
Proatheris superciliaris** Lowland swamp viper (SW Tanzania, S Malawi to C
Genus: Pseudocerastes
Pseudocerastes fieldi see P. persicus fieldi
Pseudocerastes persicus** Persian horned viper
-- P. persicus fieldi Field’s horned viper (Iraq, Jordan, Israel, Sinai)
-- P. persicus persicus (Iran, Pakistan, E part of the Arabian Peninsula)
Genus: Vipera, Palearctic or Eurasian vipers
Vipera albizona*** Central Turkish mountain viper (the province of Sivas, Turkey)
Vipera albicornuta see V. raddei albicornuta
Vipera ammodytes** Nose-horned viper
-- V. ammodytes ammodytes (N Tyrol, Austria, former Yugoslavia, Romania, NW
-- V. ammodytes meridionalis (Greece, Albania, Asia Minor, Syria, the Cyclades)
-- V. ammodytes montandoni (W Black Sea region)
-- V. ammodytes transcaucasiana (South Caucasus)
Vipera anatolica* (Taurus Mountains, S Turkey)
Vipera aspis** Asp viper
-- V. aspis aspis European asp (Pyrenean Mountains, S France, S Black Forest, the Alps,
Elba, the northern part of former Yugoslavia)
-- V. aspis atra Black asp (C Switzerland to N Italy, the neighboring part of SE France)
-- V. aspis francisciredi Central Italian asp (N and C Italy, Elba)
-- V. aspis hugyi, syn. montecristi Southern Italian asp (Calabria and Sicily)
-- V. aspis zinnikeri Gascony asp (SW France)
Vipera atra see V. aspis atra
Vipera barani** Turkish viper (NW, NE Turkey, possibly the neighboring part of
Vipera berus** Common or European viper
-- V. berus berus Common or European viper (N and C Europe, southwards to N Italy,
-- V. berus bosniensis Balkan cross adder (former Yugoslavia, Bulgaria)
-- V. berus sachalinensis Sakhalin Island adder (Sakhalin and Far East)
Vipera bornmuelleri** Lebanon viper (Lebanon and the neighboring parts of Jordan,
Syria and Israel)
Vipera darevskii** Darevsky’s viper (SE Armenia and the neighboring part of Georgia)
Vipera dinnicki** Dinnik’s viper (the Greater Caucasus)
Vipera ebneri* (SW Turkmenistan and the neighboring territory of N Iran)
Vipera eriwanensis* (NE Turkey to S Caucasus and E Uzbekistan)
Vipera hugyi see V. aspis hugyi
Vipera kaznakovi** Kaznakov’s viper (W Caucasus and Turkey)
Vipera latastei** Lataste’s viper
-- V. latastei gaditana (coastal S Portugal and SW Spain, Morocco, N coast of Algeria to
NW Tunisia)
-- V. latastei latastei (N Portugal and Spain)
Vipera latifii*** Latifi’s viper (Iran)
Vipera lotievi* Caucasian meadow viper (the northern slopes of the Greater Caucasus)
Vipera magnifica* (W Caucasus)
Vipera monticola* Atlas mountain viper (Morocco – the Greater Atlas)
Vipera nikolskii** Nikolski’s viper (SW Russia and Ukraine to W Kazakhstan)
Vipera orlovi* (W Caucasus)
Vipera palestinae*** Palestine viper, syn. Daboia palestinae (Israel, W Jordan, W Syria)
Vipera pontica Pontic adder see V. barani
Vipera raddei*** Armenian mountain viper
-- V. raddei albicornuta (N Iran)
-- V. raddei kurdistanica (SE Turkey)
-- V. raddei latifi see Vipera latifii
-- V. raddei raddei (Armenia, NE Turkey, NW Iran)
Vipera renardi* Steppe viper
-- V. renardi renardi (Ukraine, Russia, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, China)
-- V. renardi parursinii (NW China)
-- V. renardi tienshanica (Tian Shan in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and NW China)
Vipera russellii see Daboia russelli
Vipera sachalinensis see V. berus sachalinensis
Vipera seoanei** Baskian viper
-- V. seoanei cantabrica (C Spain)
-- V. seoanei seoanei Baskian viper (N Spain, N Portugal, SW France)
Vipera transcaucasiana see V. ammodytes transcaucasiana
Vipera ursinii* Meadow viper
-- V. ursinii rakosiensis (originally isolated patches of populations in SE Austria,
Hungary and W Romania; the subspecies is now getting extinct)
-- V. ursinii ursinii (Italy and SE France)
-- V. ursinii anatolica see V. anatolica
-- V. ursinii graeca (the Pindos Mountains, Greece)
-- V. ursinii macrops (Krk Island near Greece, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, N
Macedonia, NE Albania)
-- V. ursinii moldavica (lowlands from Romania across Moldavia as far as W Ukraine
-- V. ursinii wettsteini see V. ursinii ursinii
Vipera wagneri** Ocellated mountain viper (NE Turkey and NW Iran)
Vipera xanthina*** Rock viper (the European part of Turkey, W Asia)
-- V. xanthina bornmuelleri see V. bornmuelleri
-- V. xanthina xanthina see V. xanthina
-- V. xanthina albizona see V. albizona
-- V. xanthina bulgardaghica - considered by some as a separate species, but disputed by
others who list the subspecies as a variation of V. xanthina (Bulgar-Dagh Mountains,
S Turkey)
Vipera zinnikeri see V. aspis zinnikeri
Subfamily: Crotalinae
Genus: Agkistrodon
Agkistrodon acutus see Deinagkistrodon acutus
Agkistrodon bilineatus*** Cantil (Mexico to Nicaragua)
-- A. bilineatus bilineatus (the Pacific coastal plains of Mexico, Guatemala, Salvador)
-- A. bilineatus howardgloydi (Honduras, Nicaragua, NW Costa Rica)
-- A. bilineatus russeolus (N Yucat?n and the N part of Belize)
-- A. bilineatus taylori see A. taylori
Agkistrodon blomhoffii see Gloydius blomhoffii
Agkistrodon contortrix** Southern copperhead (C and S USA and NE Mexico)
-- A. contortrix contortrix (Maryland to Texas and Oklahoma)
-- A. contortrix laticinctus (C and N Texas to Kansas)
-- A. contortrix mokasen (Connecticut to Virginia and Carolina, Indiana)
-- A. contortrix phaeogaster (NE Oklahoma, E Kansas, C and W Missouri, SE Iowa,
-- A. contortrix pictigaster (Mexico - Coahuila, Chihuahua; Texas - the Trans-Pecos
Agkistrodon halys see Gloydius halys
Agkistrodon intermedius see Gloydius intermedius
Agkistrodon monticola see Gloydius monticola
Agkistrodon piscivorus*** Western cottonmouth (SE USA)
-- A. piscivorus conanti (Florida and the neighboring areas of S Georgia and SE
-- A. piscivorus leucostoma (the USA and Mexican border - E Oklahoma, S Illinois and
SW Alabama)
-- A. piscivorus piscivorus (SE Virginia, C Georgia, E Alabama)
Agkistrodon rhodostoma see Calloselasma rhodostoma
Agkistrodon saxalis see Gloydius intermedius saxatilis
Agkistrodon shedaoensis see Gloydius shedaoensis
Agkistrodon strauchi see Gloydius strauchi
Agkistrodon taylori*** Mexican Moccasin (NE Mexico)
Agkistrodon ussuriensis see Gloydius ussuriensis
Genus: Atropoides, jumping pit vipers
Atropoides mexicanus** Central American jumping pitviper (Central America - Belize to
C Panama)
Atropoides nummifer** Jumping pit viper
-- A. nummifer mexicanus see A. mexicanus
-- A. nummifer nummifer Jumping pit viper (Mexico)
-- A. nummifer occiduus see A. occiduus
Atropoides occiduus** (Central America - Mexico to Salvador)
Atropoides olmec** Olmecan pit viper (N Mexico)
Atropoides picadoi** Picado’s Jumping pitviper (Costa Rica and NW Panama)
Genus: Bothriechis, palm pit vipers
Bothriechis aurifer** Yellow-blotched palm pit viper (Mexico and C Guatemala)
Bothriechis bicolor** Guatemala palm pit viper (Mexico, Guatemala, isolated patches of
populations in W Honduras)
Bothriechis bilineatus see Bothriopsis bilineata
Bothriechis lateralis** Side-striped palm pit viper (Costa Rica to inland Panama)
Bothriechis marchi** March’s palm pit viper (isolated patches of populations in NW
Bothriechis nigroviridis** Black-speckled palm pit viper (C Costa Rica to W Panama)
Bothriechis oligolepis see Bothriopsis oligolepis
Bothriechis punctatus see Bothrops punctatus
Bothriechis rowleyi** Rowley’s palm pit viper (Mexico)
Bothriechis schlegelii** Eyelash palm pit viper (from S Mexico across Central America
as far as W Colombia)
Bothriechis supraciliaris** (SW Costa Rica)
Bothriechis thalassinus** (E Guatemala and W Honduras)
Bothriechis taeniatus see Bothriopsis taeniata
Genus: Bothriopsis, forest pit vipers
Bothriopsis albocarinata see B. pulchra
Bothriopsis bilineata** Two-striped forest pit viper (N Colombia, SW Venezuela,
Ecuador, Bolivia, Brazil)
Bothriopsis chloromelas** (the Peruvian Andes)
Bothriopsis medusa** Venezuela forest pit viper (Venezuela)
Bothriopsis oligolepis** Inca forest pit viper
-- B. oligolepis oligolepis (N Peru and NW Bolivia)
-- B. oligolepis albocarinata see Bothriopsis pulchra
Bothriopsis peruviana, Peru forest pit viper, syn. B. chloromelas and B. oligolepis
Bothriopsis pulchra** (the Andes to the east, from S and C Colombia across Ecuador to
N Peru)
Bothriopsis punctata see Bothrops punctatus
Bothriopsis taeniata** Speckled forest pit viper (Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Brazil,
Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador)
Genus: Bothrocophias
Bothrocophias campbelli*** (the NW coasts of S America)
Bothrocophias colombianus** (Colombia)
Bothrocophias hyoprora** (N Colombia, E Ecuador, NE Peru, W Brazil, N Bolivia)
Bothrocophias microphthalmus*** (C Colombia, C Ecuador, Peru to NW Bolivia)
Bothrocophias myersi*** (the NW coasts of S America)
Genus: Bothrops, lanceheads, American lanceheads, or American lance-headed vipers
Bothrops alcatraz*** Alcatrazes lancehead (Alcatrazes Island near Brazil)
Bothrops alternatus*** Urutu (NE and C Argentina, Uruguay, S Paraguay, S Brazil,
isolated patches in E Argentina)
Bothrops ammodytoides* Patagonia lancehead (W and C Argentina)
Bothrops andianus** Andean lancehead (Peru)
Bothrops asper see Bothrops atrox
Bothrops atrox*** Common lancehead (Central and South America)
-- B. atrox atrox, B. atrox xanthogrammus; more recently not listed as subspecies
Bothrops barnetti** Barnett’s lancehead (the N coast of Peru and the neighboring
territory of SW Ecuador)
Bothrops bilineatus see Bothriopsis bilineata
Bothrops brazili*** Brazil’s lancehead (N Colombia to French Guyana, E Ecuador, NE
and E Peru)
Bothrops campbelli see Bothrocophias campbelli and Bothrocophias myersi in part.
Bothrops caribbaeus*** Saint Lucia lancehead (Saint Lucia Island)
Bothrops castelnaudi see Bothriopsis taeniata
Bothrops colombianus see Bothrocophias colombianus
Bothrops cotiara*** Cotiara (N Brazil and NE Argentina)
Bothrops diporus** Chaco lancehead (N and E Paraguay and the neighboring areas of S
Brazil, Argentina)
Bothrops erythromelas*** Caatinga lancehead (NE Brazil)
Bothrops fonsecai*** Fonseca’s lancehead (SE coast of Brazil)
Bothrops iglesiasi see Bothrops lutzi
Bothrops insularis*** Queimada jararaca (Queimada Grande Island)
Bothrops isabelae see Bothrops atrox
Bothrops itapetiningae*** Sao Paulo lancehead (N C Brazil)
Bothrops jararaca*** Jararaca (Brazil and N Argentina)
Bothrops jararacussu*** Jararacussu (Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay, N Argentina)
Bothrops jonathani*** Jonathan’s lancehead (Bolivia)
Bothrops lanceolatus*** Martinique lancehead (Martinique)
Bothrops leucurus*** Whitetail lancehead (Brazil)
Bothrops lojanus*** Lojan lancehead (Ecuador)
Bothrops lutzi*** Sertao lancehead (Brazil)
Bothrops marajoensis*** Maraj? lancehead (N Brazil)
Bothrops mattogrossensis** Mato Grosso lancehead (Bolivia and the neighboring part of
Bothrops medusa see Bothriopsis medusa
Bothrops microphthalmus see Bothrocophias microphthalmus
Bothrops moojeni*** Brazilian lancehead (E Paraguay to C Brazil and NE Argentina)
Bothrops muriciensis*** Murici lancehead (the Murici Forest region, E Brazil)
Bothrops neuwiedi** Neuwied’s lancehead (Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay, N Argentina)
-- B. neuwiedi bolivianus see B. mattogrossensis
-- B. neuwiedi diporus see B. diporus
-- B. neuwiedi goyazensis
-- B. neuwiedi lutzi, syn. bahiensis see B. lutzi
-- B. neuwiedi mattogrossensis see B. mattogrossensis
-- B. neuwiedi meridionalis, syn. fluminensis see B. neuwiedi
-- B. neuwiedi neuwiedi Neuwied’s lancehead
-- B. neuwiedi paranaensis (Brazil)
-- B. neuwidei pauloensis see B. pauloensis
-- B. neuwiedi piauhyensis see B. lutzi
-- B. neuwiedi pubescens, syn. B. riograndensis see B. pubescens
-- B. neuwiedi urutu
Bothrops nummifer see Atropoides nummifer
Bothrops oligolepis see Bothriopsis oligolepis
Bothrops osbornei see Bothrops punctatus
Bothrops pauloensis** Black-faced lancehead (Brazil)
Bothrops peruvianus see Bothriopsis oligolepis
Bothrops pictus*** Desert lancehead (coastal Peru)
Bothrops pirajai*** Piraja’s lancehead (Brazil)
Bothrops pradoi see B. leucurus
Bothrops pubescens** Pampas lancehead (Brazil)
Bothrops pulcher see Bothrocophias myersi
Bothrops punctatus*** (Pacific Panama across Colombia to Ecuador)
Bothrops sanctaecrucis*** Bolivian lancehead (Bolivia)
Bothrops schlegelii see Bothriechis schlegeli
Bothrops taeniatus see Bothriopsis taeniata
Bothrops venezuelensis*** Venezuela lancehead (N and C Venezuela)
Bothrops xanthogrammus see B. atrox
Genus: Calloselasma
Calloselasma rhodostoma** Malayan pit viper (N Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos,
Genus: Cerrophidion, montane pit vipers
Cerrophidion barbouri*** Barbour’s montane pit viper (Mexico)
Cerrophidion godmani*** Godman’s montane pit viper (Central America - from Mexico
as far as Costa Rica)
Cerrophidion petlalcalensis*** (E Mexico)
Cerrophidion tzotzilorum*** Tzotzil montane pit viper (Mexico)
Genus: Crotalus, rattlesnakes
Crotalus abysus see C. oreganus abyssus
Crotalus adamanteus*** Eastern diamond-backed rattlesnake (SE USA - from SE
Carolina as far as Florida, and S Mississippi and SE Louisiana to the west)
Crotalus angelensis see C. mitcheli angelensis
Crotalus aquilus** Queretaran dusky rattlesnake (C Mexico)
Crotalus atrox*** Western diamond-backed rattlesnake (Oklahoma to C Mexico and
Crotalus basiliscus*** Mexican West Coast rattlesnake (the W coast of Mexico)
Crotalus catalinensis** Santa Catalina Island rattlesnake (the Santa Catalina Islands near
Crotalus cerastes** Sidewinder
-- C. cerastes cerastes Mojave Desert sidewinder (the Mojave Desert)
-- C. cerastes cercobombus Sonoran sidewinder (the Sonora Desert, N Mexico)
-- C. cerastes laterorepens Colorado Desert sidewinder (the Colorado Desert, NW
Crotalus cerberus*** (the USA)
Crotalus concolor*** (the USA)
Crotalus durissus*** South American rattlesnake
-- C. durissus cascavella (Brazil)
-- C. durissus collilineatus (Brazil)
-- C. durissus culminatus see Crotalus simus culminatus
-- C. durissus cumanensis, syn. C. durissus pifanorum (NE Colombia, Venezuela, W
-- C. durissus dryinas - more recently one of C. durissus durissus synonyms (Guyana,
French Guyana, Surinam)
-- C. durissus durissus (SE Mexico, SW Nicaragua, Honduras to NW and C Costa Rica)
-- C. durissus marajoensis (Maraj? Island)
-- C. durissus ruruima (Venezuela, N Brazil, and the neighboring part of Guyana)
-- C. durissus terrificus (SE Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay, N Uruguay, C Argentina, S Brazil)
-- C. durissus totonacus see C. totonacus
-- C. durissus trigonicus (SW Guyana)
-- C. durissus tzabcan see C. simus tzabcan
-- C. durissus unicolor Aruba Island rattlesnake (Aruba Island)
-- C. durissus vegrandis (Venezuela and the neighboring areas of Colombia)
Crotalus enyo** Lower California rattlesnake
-- C. enyo cerralvensis (the island of Cerralvo near Mexico)
-- C. enyo enyo (Mexico - N and C part of the Californian Peninsula and the neighboring
-- C. enyo furvus (Mexico - W Californian Peninsula)
Crotalus exsul see C. ruber exsul
Crotalus helleri*** (Coronado del Sur Island, the USA as far as Mexico)
Crotalus horridus*** Timber rattlesnake (SE, NE and E of the central USA, Canada -
-- C. horridus atricaudatus, C. horridus horridus - more recently not listed as a
Crotalus intermedius** Mexican smallhead rattlesnake
-- C. intermedius gloydi (SW USA, N Mexico)
-- C. intermedius intermedius (N Mexico)
-- C. intermedius omiltemanus (N Mexico)
Crotalus lannomi** Autlan long-tailed rattlesnake (Mexico - Jalisco, Puerto los Mazos)
Crotalus lepidus** Rock rattlesnake
-- C. lepidus klauberi Banded rock rattlesnake (N USA, NW Mexico)
-- C. lepidus lepidus Mottled rock rattlesnake (N USA and the neighboring areas of NE
-- C. lepidus maculosus (Mexican Sierra Madre Occidental)
-- C. lepidus morulus (Mexico)
Crotalus lutosus*** (the USA)
Crotalus mitcheli*** Southwestern speckled rattlesnake
-- C. mitcheli angelensis (Angel de la Guarda Island)
-- C. mitcheli mitcheli (W Mexico)
-- C. mitcheli muertensis (El Muerto Island)
-- C. mitcheli pyrrhus (SW USA)
-- C. mitcheli stephensis (east of C California and SW Nevada)
Crotalus molossus*** Black-tailed rattlesnake
-- C. molossus estebanensis (San Est?ban Island)
-- C. molossus molossus (SW USA, the neighboring areas of Mexico, Tibur?n Island)
-- C. molossus nigrescens (Mexico)
-- C. molossus oaxacus (Mexico)
Crotalus oreganus***
-- C. oreganus abyssus (Arizona)
-- C. oreganus caliginis see C. helleri
-- C. oreganus cerberus see C. cerberus
-- C. oreganus concolor see C. concolor
-- C. oreganus helleri see C. helleri
-- C. oreganus lutosus see C. lutosus
-- C. oreganus oreganus (SW Canada to W coast of the USA and NE Karolina)
Crotalus polystictus** Mexican lancehead rattlesnake (the N part of the Mexican
Crotalus pricei** Twin-spotted rattlesnake
-- C. pricei miquihuanus (Mexican Sierra Madre Oriental)
-- C. pricei pricei (SE Arizona)
Crotalus pusillus** Tancitaran dusky rattlesnake (Mexico)
Crotalus ravus** Mexican massasauga
-- C. ravus brunneus (Mexico - the mountain range of the State of Oaxaca)
-- C. ravus exiguus (Mexico - the State of Guerrerro)
-- C. ravus ravus (Mexico - the central plains of Altiplanicia)
Crotalus ruber*** Red diamond rattlesnake (SW USA and NW Mexico)
-- C. ruber exsul (Cedros Island, Mexico)
-- C. ruber lorenzoensis (San Lorenzo Sur Island, Mexico)
-- C. ruber lucasensis (the southern part of the Californian Peninsula, San Margarita and
San Jos? islands)
-- C. ruber ruber, syn. C. ruber monserratensis, C. ruber elegans (SW USA, NW
Crotalus scutulatus*** Mojave rattlesnake (SW USA to C Mexico)
-- C. scutulatus scutulatus (the USA to C Mexico)
-- C. scutulatus salvini (Mexico)
Crotalus simus***
-- C. simus simus (Mexico to Costa Rica)
-- C. simus culminatus (SW Mexico)
-- C. simus tzabcan (from Yucat?n as far as North Belize and Guatemala)
Crotalus stejnegeri** Longtail rattlesnake (Mexico)
Crotalus tancitarensis** (Mexico - the State of Michoacan)
Crotalus tigris**Tiger rattlesnake (the USA, NW Mexico)
Crotalus tortugensis** Tortuga Island rattlesnake (Tortuga Island)
Crotalus totonacus*** (NE Mexico)
Crotalus transversus** Cross-banded mountain rattlesnake (Mexico)
Crotalus triseriatus** Central Plateau dusky rattlesnake
-- C. triseriatus aquilus see Crotalus aquilus
-- C. triseriatus armstrongi (Mexico, the Mesa Central and Sierra Madre Occidental
-- C. triseriatus triseriatus (Mexico, the Transverse Volcanic Cordillera mountains)
Crotalus unicolor see Crotalus durissus unicolor
Crotalus vegrandis see Crotalus durissus vegrandis
Crotalus viridis*** Northern Pacific rattlesnake (SW USA and N Mexico)
-- C. viridis abyssus see C. oreganus abyssus
-- C. viridis caliginis see C. helleri
-- C. viridis cerberus see C. cerberus
-- C. viridis concolor, syn. C. viridis decolor see Crotalus concolor
-- C. viridis helleri see C. helleri
-- C. viridis lutosus see C. lutosus
-- C. viridis nuntius (the USA)
-- C. viridis oreganus see C. oreganus oreganus
-- C. viridis viridis (the USA, S Canada, Mexico)
Crotalus willardi** Ridge-nosed rattlesnake
-- C. willardi amabilis (Sierra del Nido, Mexico)
-- C. willardi meridionalis (Mexico)
-- C. willardi obscurus (Mexico and New Mexico, the USA)
-- C. willardi silus (Mexico)
-- C. willardi willardi (the USA and Mexico)
Genus: Cryptelytrops see Trimeresurus
Genus: Deinagkistrodon
Deinagkistrodon acutus*** Chinese moccasin (SE China, N Vietnam, Taiwan, Laos)
Genus: Garthius see Ovophis
Genus: Gloydius, Asian moccasins
Gloydius blomhoffii** Mamushi
-- G. blomhoffii blomhoffii (Japan)
-- G. blomhoffii brevicaudus, syn. G. blomhoffii dubitatus see G. brevicaudus
-- G. blomhoffii ussuriensis see G. ussuriensis
-- G. blomhoffii siniticus (China)
Gloydius caliginosus see G. ussuriensis
Gloydius brevicaudus** (Korea and NE China)
Gloydius halys** Halys pit viper
-- G. halys boehmei (E Afghanistan)
-- G. halys caraganus (from the Volga River delta to E Kazakhstan as far as Tajikistan to
the south, and Kyrgyzstan and NW China to the east)
-- G. halys cognatus (N China)
-- G. halys halys (Russia, Mongolia, China)
-- G. halys mogoi (Mongolia and S Siberia), more recently included in G. halys halys
-- G. halys caucasicus (SE Azerbaijan, North Iran, S Turkmenistan, NW Afghanistan)
-- G. halys stejnegeri (N and SE Mongolia and the neighboring part of China)
Gloydius himalayanus** Himalayan pit viper (NE Pakistan, N India to C Nepal)
Gloydius intermedius** Central Asian pit viper (E Turkmenistan, E Kazakhstan, S
Siberia, SE Russia, Mongolia, China, Korea)
-- G. intermedius caucasicus see G. halys caucasicus
-- G. intermedius intermedius
-- G. intermedius saxatilis
-- G. intermedius stejnegeri see G. halys stejnegeri
Gloydius monticola** Likiang pit viper (China)
Gloydius saxatilis see G. intermedius saxatilis
Gloydius shedaoensis** Shedao Island pit viper (Shedao Island)
Gloydius strauchi** Strauch’s pit viper (SW China)
Gloydius tsushimaensis** Tsushima Island pit viper (Japan)
Gloydius ussuriensis** Ussuri mamushi (Korea, E China, SE Russia)
Genus: Himalayophis see Trimeresurus
Genus: Hypnale, hump-nosed pit vipers
Hypnale hypnale** Hump-nosed moccasin (N India)
Hypnale nepa* Sri Lanka hump-nosed viper (SW Sri Lanka)
Hypnale walli* Wall’s hump-nosed viper (SW Sri Lanka)
Genus: Lachesis, bushmasters
Lachesis acrochorda*** (Panama across Colombia to Ecuador)
Lachesis melanocephala*** Black-headed bushmaster (SE Costa Rica)
Lachesis muta*** South American bushmaster
-- L. muta melanocephala see L. melanocephala
-- L. muta muta (Colombian equatorial forests to Trinidad, southwards as far as Bolivia,
the Andes - Ecuador and Colombia)
-- L. muta rhombeata, syn. L. muta noctivaga (the SE coast of Brazil), more recently
included in Lachesis muta synonyms
-- L. muta stenophrys see L. stenophrys
Lachesis stenophrys*** Central American bushmaster (Costa Rica to Panama)
Genus: Ophryacus, Mexican horned pit vipers
Ophryacus melanurus** (N Mexico)
Ophryacus undulatus** Mexican horned pit viper (Mexico)
Genus: Ovophis, mountain pit vipers
Ovophis chaseni** Chasen’s mountain pitviper (a type locality - Kiau, Mt. Kinabalu, the
province of Sabah, Borneo) - also listed under a newly recognized Garthius genus
Ovophis monticola** Chinese mountain pit viper
-- O. monticola convictus (Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand, W Malaysia, Indonesia)
-- O. monticola makazayazaya (N China and Taiwan)
-- O. monticola monticola (India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Burma, S China)
-- O. monticola orientalis (N and SE China)
-- O. monticola zayuensis see O. zayuensis
-- O. monticola zhaokentangi (China)
Ovophis okinavensis** Ryukyu Island pit viper (Japan)
Ovophis tonkinensis** Tonkin pitviper (Vietnam)
Ovophis zayuensis** (Tibet)
Genus: Parias see Trimeresurus
Genus: Peltopelor see Trimeresurus
Genus: Popeia see Trimeresurus
Genus: Porthidium, hognosed pit vipers
Porthidium arcosae** (type localities - Aqua Blanca, Manab?, Mexico)
Porthidium almawebi see Bothrocophias campbelli and Bothrocophias myersi
Porthidium barbouri see Cerrophidion barbouri
Porthidium colombianum see Bothrocophias colombianus
Porthidium dunni** Dunn’s hognose viper (Mexico)
Porthidium godmani see Cerrophidion godmani
Porthidium hespere** Western hognose viper (a type locality - Municipio de Ixlahuac?n,
Colima, Mexico)
Porthidium hyoprora see Bothrocophias hyoprora
Porthidium lansbergii**
-- P. lansbergii arcosae see Porthidium acrosae
-- P. lansbergii lansbergi (C Panama, N Colombia, W Venezuela)
-- P. lansbergii rozei, syn. P. lansbergii venezuelensis (coastal Venezuela), more recently
Porthidium lansbergii synonyms
Porthidium melanurum see Ophryacus melanurus
Porthidium microphtalmum see Bothrocophias microphthalmus
Porthidium nasutum** Rainforest hognosed pitviper (isolated patches of populations in S
Mexico to W Colombia and NW Ecuador)
Porthidium nummifer see Atropoides nummifer
Porthidium olmec see Atropoides olmec
Porthidium ophryomegas** Slender hog-nosed pitviper (Pacific Central America from
Guatemala as far as Panama)
Porthidium porrasi** (Costa Rica)
Porthidium picadoi see Atropoides picadoi
Porthidium tzotzilorum see Cerrophidion tzotzilorum
Porthidium volcanicum** (Costa Rica)
Porthidium yucatanicum** Yucat?n hognose viper (Mexico)
Genus: Protobothrops, Asian pit vipers
Protobothrops cornutus** Fan-Si-Pan horned pit viper (N Vietnam)
Protobothrops elegans** Elegant pit viper (Japan)
Protobothrops flavoviridis*** Habu (Japan)
Protobothrops jerdonii** Bourret’s pit viper
-- P. jerdoni bourreti (N Vietnam)
-- P. jerdoni jerdoni (India, Nepal, Burma, China)
-- P. jerdoni xanthomelas (N China)
Protobothrops kaulbacki** Kaulback’s lance-headed pit viper (a type locality - Pangnam-
dim, N Burma)
Protobothrops mucrosquamatus*** Brown spotted pit viper (India, Bangladesh, S China,
Burma, N Vietnam, Taiwan, Hainan)
Protobothrops tokarensis** Tokara habu (Japan)
Protobothrops xiangchengensis** Kham Plateau pit viper (China - W Sichuan and
Genus: Sistrurus, ground rattlesnakes
Sistrurus catenatus** Massasauga
-- S. catenatus catenatus (SE Canada and the USA)
-- S. catenatus edwardsii (the USA and N Mexico)
-- S. catenatus tergeminus (SW plains, the USA)
Sistrurus miliarius** Pigmy rattlesnake
-- S. miliarius barbouri (the USA - SW South Carolina to Florida)
-- S. miliarius miliarius (the USA - the lowlands along the coast of the Atlantic Ocean
from North Carolina as far as Georgia and C Alabama)
-- S. miliarius streckeri (the USA - SW Kentucky, western C Alabama, W Mississippi to
SW Tennessee, E Texas)
Sistrurus ravus Mexican Massasauga see Crotalus ravus ssp
Genus: Triceratolepidophis
Triceratolepidophis sieversorum** Three horned-scaled pit viper (Vietnam - the province
of Quang Binh and the neighboring areas of Laos)
Genus: Trimeresurus, Asian pit vipers, Asian lanceheads or lance-headed vipers
Trimeresurus albolabris** White-lipped tree viper (NE India, S China, Hainan, Thailand,
Vietnam, Hong Kong, Malayan Peninsula) - also listed under a newly recognized
Cryptelytrops genus
-- T. albolabris albolabris
-- T. albolabris insularis see T. insularis
-- T. albolabris septentrionalis see T. septentrionalis
Trimeresurus andersoni** Anderson’s pitviper - also listed under a newly recognized
Cryptelytrops genus (the Andaman and Nicobar Islands)
Trimeresurus barati** Barat bamboo pitviper (Indonesia)
Trimeresurus borneensis** Borneo pit viper (N Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Brunei)
Trimeresurus brongersmai** Brongersma’s pit viper (Indonesia)
Trimeresurus cantori** Cantor’s pit viper - also listed under a newly recognized
Cryptelytrops genus (the Nicobar Islands)
Trimeresurus convictus see Ovophis monticola convictus
Trimeresurus cornutus see Protobothrops cornutus
Trimeresurus elegans see Protobothrops elegans
Trimeresurus erythrurus** Redtail (bamboo) pit viper - also listed under a newly
recognized Cryptelytrops genus (India, E Bengal, Burma, Bangladesh)
Trimeresurus fasciatus** Banded pit viper - also listed under a newly recognized
Cryptelytrops genus (Indonesia)
Trimeresurus flavomaculatus** Philippine pitviper - also listed under a newly recognized
Parias genus (the Philippines - Balete, Camiguin, Jolo, Luzon, Mindanao, Mindoro,
and Polillo islands)
-- T. flavomaculatus flavomaculatus
-- T. flavomaculatus halieus
-- T. flavomaculatus mcgregori see T. mcgregori
Trimeresurus flavoviridis see Protobothrops flavoviridis
Trimeresurus fucatus** Siamese Peninsula pitviper - also listed under a newly
recognized Popeia genus (N Thailand)
Trimeresurus gracilis** Kikuchi habu (inland Taiwan, mountain ranges)
Trimeresurus gramineus** Common bamboo viper (N and C India)
Trimeresurus gumprechti** Gumprecht’s green pitviper - also listed under a newly
recognized Viridovipera genus (NE Thailand, China - Yunnan, Hainan, NW
Vietnam, Laos, Burma)
Trimeresurus hageni** Indonesian pit viper or Hagen’s pitviper - also listed under a
newly recognized Parias genus (N Thailand, Malayan Peninsula, Indonesia).
Trimeresurus huttoni see Tropidolaemus huttoni
Trimeresurus insularis** White-lipped island pitviper - also listed under a newly
recognized Cryptelytrops genus (E Indonesia)
Trimeresurus jerdoni see Protobothrops jerdoni ssp.
Trimeresurus kanburiensis** Kanburi pit viper - also listed under a newly recognized
Cryptelytrops genus (Kanburi, SW Thailand)
Trimeresurus kaulbacki see Protobothrops kaulbacki
Trimeresurus labialis** Island pit viper, Nicobar bamboo pitviper - also listed under a
newly recognized Cryptelytrops genus (the Andaman and Nicobar Islands)
Trimeresurus macrolepis** Large-scaled pit viper - also listed under a newly recognized
Peltopelor genus (N India).
Trimeresurus macrops** Kramer’s pit viper, large-eyed pitviper - also listed under a
newly recognized Cryptelytrops genus (Thailand, Cambodia to S Vietnam).
Trimeresurus malabaricus** Malabarian pit viper (SW coast of India)
Trimeresurus malcolmi** Malcolm’s pitviper - also listed under a newly recognized
Parias genus (Borneo)
Trimeresurus mangshanensis** Mangshan pitviper - also listed under a newly recognized
Zhaoermia genus (a type locality - Mangshan, the province of Hunan, China)
Trimeresurus mcgregori** McGregor’s pitviper - also listed under a newly recognized
Parias genus (the Philippines - Batan)
Trimeresurus medoensis** Green bamboo leaf pit viper, Motuo bamboo pitviper - also
listed under a newly recognized Viridovipera genus (India, N Burma, SE China)
Trimeresurus monticola see Ovophis monticola ssp.
Trimeresurus mucrosquamatus see Protobothrops mucrosquamatus
Trimeresurus nebularis** Cameron highlands pit viper - also listed under a newly
recognized Popeia genus (Malaysia)
Trimeresurus popeiorum** Pope’s tree viper or Pope’s bamboo pit viper - also listed
under a newly recognized Popeia genus
-- T. popeiorum barati see T. barati
-- T. popeiorum popeiorum (E India to Malayan Peninsula)
-- T. popeiorum sabahi see T. sabahi
Trimeresurus puniceus** Ashy pit viper, flat-nosed pitviper (Indonesia)
Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus** Shore pit viper or mangrove viper - also listed under
a newly recognized Cryptelytrops genus (W Thailand, Burma, Malaysia, Indonesia)
-- T. purpureomaculatus andersoni see T. andersoni
-- T. purpureomaculatus purpureomaculatus
Trimeresurus sabahi** Sabah bamboo viper (Borneo)
Trimeresurus septentrionalis** - also listed under a newly recognized Cryptelytrops
genus (Nepal, India, Bangladesh)
Trimeresurus schultzei** Schultze’s pit viper - also listed under a newly recognized
Parias genus (the Philippines)
Trimeresurus stejnegeri** Chinese green tree viper, Stejneger’s bamboo pitviper - also
listed under a newly recognized Viridovipera genus
-- T. stejnegeri stejnegeri (N China, N Vietnam, Cambodia, E Thailand, Hainan, Taiwan)
-- T. stejnegeri chenbihuii (Hainan, China)
-- T. stejnegeri yunnanensis see T. yunnanensis
Trimeresurus strigatus** Horseshoe pitviper (N India)
Trimeresurus sumatranus** Sumatra pit viper - also listed under a newly recognized
Parias genus (Indonesia, Malaysia)
-- T. sumatranus malcolmi see T. malcolmi
-- T. sumatranus sumatranus
Trimeresurus tibetanus** Tibetan bamboo pitviper (a type locality - Chokosumo,
Nyalam Co., Tibet, China), also listed under a newly recognized Himalayophis genus
Trimeresurus tokarensis see Protobothrops tokarensis
Trimeresurus tonkinensis see Ovophis tonkinensis
Trimeresurus trigonocephalus** Ceylon pit viper, Sri Lankan green pitviper (Sri Lanka)
Trimeresurus truongsonensis** (C Vietnam)
Trimeresurus venustus** Beautiful pitviper - also listed under a newly recognized
Cryptelytrops genus (a type locality - Thung Song, Nakhon Si Thammart, Thailand)
Trimeresurus vogeli** Vogel’s pit viper - also listed under a newly recognized
Viridovipera genus (Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam)
Trimeresurus xiangchengensis see Protobothrops xiangchengensis
Trimeresurus yunnanensis** Yunnan bamboo pitviper - also listed under a newly
recognized Viridovipera genus (Nepal, E India, China, N Burma)
Trimeresurus zayuensis see Ovophis zayuensis
Genus: Tropidolaemus, temple vipers
Tropidolaemus huttoni** Hutton’s pitviper (N India)
Tropidolaemus wagleri** Wagler’s palm viper, Wagler’s pit viper, temple pitviper
(Borneo, Malaysia, Sumatra, Sulawesi, the Philippines)
-- T. wagleri alboviridis
-- T. wagleri celebensis
-- T. wagleri philippensis
-- T. wagleri schlegelii
-- T. wagleri wagleri
Genus: Viridovipera see Trimeresurus
Genus: Zhaoermia see Trimeresurus











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