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Pakiscary

Smashed to the gills on the unstable chemical reaction between sleeping pills and alcohol was not how I had planned to arrive in the most hardcore country I had gone to yet. It had all started when the Australian company BHP Billiton began having extreme snakebite issues at their Zamzama gas fields in the Sindh desert. This is one of Pakistan’s most dangerous areas, because various factions were fighting in the name of ideology. The ideologically linked areas of “Special Importance” were, by sheer coincidence I am sure, almost the exact boundaries of large natural gas deposits. They all wanted to control these cash dispensers.

Zamzama security was tight and lethally efficient. The head of security and his offsider were both former British Special Air Service officers with combat experience in areas pretty much exactly like this. While they could control the bandits, they could not control the snakes. One worker was bitten when he came out from the mosque after midday prayers, put his big workboots back on and felt a stabbing pain. A large Russell’s viper had taken shelter from the sun inside one of the boots and was not happy about being disturbed. As no antivenom was stocked on-site, and the company plane was in Karachi picking up supplies, there was no alternative but the long drive to Karachi. Four high-speed hours later, while still being driven, the worker died from blood clotting issues including thoracic bleeding and intracranial haemorrhage. A second worker was killed when a Sind krait bit him in the neck while he was sleeping. He died just like my mate Joe Slowinski did: paralysis of the diaphragm, thus knocking out the ability to breathe, and leading to a death of slow suffocation. Then the site administrative manager was bailed up in a corner of his office by a six-foot black cobra. He escaped being bitten only through the quick action of the security staff, who shot the snake. This all occurred in the space of two months, when the warm monsoon rains brought the desert alive.

As the occupational health and safety issues had hit such an extreme that the site was in danger of being shut down, they contracted my mate Sean McCarthy and me through Snake Handler, the company run by Sean and his wife, Stacey. Snake Handler is the only company in Australia—perhaps the only one in the world—with certification from a higher educational regulator for occupational snake management courses. We were going to give a highly adapted version of this training to reflect the rather special set of circumstances. We don’t usually have to incorporate razor wire and bomb barriers into our educational plan!
The limo and driver picked me up at 3:30 a.m. for my business class Emirates flight to Karachi, with transit through Dubai. I was the point man on the operation. I was going to arrive seventy-two hours before Sean and get everything sorted with snakes and the on-site set-up. The flight to Dubai was a long one and I had been up all night preparing the pelican cases full of vital gear, so I definitely could use the shut-eye. I was armed with a new type of sleeping pill I hadn’t tried yet, one called Ambien. As I was prescribed it just the day before I left, I hadn’t had a chance to dig into the literature about its specific biochemical targeting. I had settled into a traveling routine using benzodiazepines like temazepam and other valium-like drugs, and naively treated this new pill the same way: I washed two down with a double white Russian, one shot of vodka for each. This is something I’d found works a treat with benzos: if I’m tired and take that combination, I have a nice little nap and wake up serene. If I’m not too tired, I don’t fall asleep and just enjoy this rather nice way to pass the time.

I woke just in time for the very tasty meal being served. Afterwards, I figured that since I had had such a lovely little nap and woken up so refreshed, I might as well repeat this chemical combination. As I was settling in ten minutes later, I heard over the loudspeaker, “Please fasten your seatbelt.” “Huh?” I thought. I wondered if we were stopping in Darwin to pick up more passengers. We couldn’t be much further than that. Could we? As it transpired, we were much further along in our journey. In fact, we were now arriving in Dubai. I had been unconscious the entire flight. I was quite relieved that I hadn’t woken in a pool of my own urine! I now faced a two-hour layover before the two-hour flight to Karachi with a short-fused chemical time bomb ticking away inside me that was going to go off very soon.

I quickly asked the stewardess to please get me six shots of espresso. She ignored the no-serving light, probably because she wanted to see me slam them in quick succession. It kept me awake but very high and wired as I went into the Emirates transit lounge, heading straight for more espresso. I had a double shot every twenty minutes. This kept me awake long enough to make my connecting flight. I stumbled toward the boarding gate; once onboard I closed my eyes for the shortest of naps, and next thing I knew we were in Karachi. Luckily, I had a local fixer hired by BHP to meet me and ease my way through the airport bureaucracy. Very helpful, since when I tried to talk to the customs officer in response to his questions, I was so inarticulate I sounded like I had a severe head injury. I was like a concussed kitten on a ketamine trip.

Leaving the airport in a chemical stupor, at first I thought it would be a good idea to raise my arms like the returning messiah to the cheering crowd gathered outside. But my lone functioning brain cell expressed its doubt that the crowd was for me. The validity of this statement was recognized even by my gargantuan ego. The cheering crowd was there for some local politician/warlord (the difference between the two being slight, if it exists at all). The overenthusiasm of some, approaching religious rapture, to me seemed quite contrived. I concluded it was largely a rent-a-crowd to pump up the politician’s fragile ego and simultaneously artificially inflate the public perception of his standing. I just kept my head down while I was quickly shuffled off to a waiting armored Mercedes. During the drive to the safe house, I was hidden behind not only the tinted windows but also the black mesh sightscreens on the inside of the back seat passenger windows.
The next day I headed off to the University of Karachi to meet Syed Ali and his PhD student, Mehtab Alam. The previous government had been led by the military strongman Pervez Musharraf, the commanding general who had seized power through a military coup d’?tat. While his means of obtaining power left much to be desired, as did his bloody military history, he ironically was the best thing ever to have happened to the state of Pakistani science. Much of this was due to the incredible leverage wielded by the active nuclear program that was the brainchild of Abdul Qadeer Khan. As the University of Karachi was where Khan had his laboratories, it was the greatest beneficiary of the program.

While I had been impressed with the advanced state of some of the laboratories on campus, the legacy of this scientific investment caught me unawares. It included a countrywide Internet video–connectivity for science lectures, so that not only could someone from any part of the country view a lecture in real time, but they could also interactively ask questions of the speaker. The public seminar I gave on my venom research went in a very routine manner until we got to the question-and-answer session at the end. A twenty-something male looking like a stereotypical Middle Eastern villain from the latest unimaginative Hollywood action movie popped onto the screen: soil-stained checkered turban, scraggly beard, and close-together unblinking eyes. In surprisingly lightly accented English he said, “I don’t have a question, I just wanted to say that I have long followed the various updates of your webpage venomdoc.com and I just wanted to say that it is great and I have learned a lot about the snakes I also love.” For once in my life I was speechless. I almost fell off the stage, I was so stunned! I stopped paying attention to where my long strides were taking me as I cruised across the stage on autopilot while digesting the shocking incongruence between the hostile visage and the very kind words.

After the talk, Syed and I headed back to his lab with Mehtab. I had made arrangements with them prior to my arrival to secure some snakes for us to use in the training and thus not have to rely on catching snakes in the gas fields. Naturally, we would still go out snake hunting while in the desert, but our task was too important to risk not having sufficient numbers of suitable snakes on hand. Waiting in the lab were four Russell’s vipers and three black cobras. The Russell’s vipers were light amber with black-outlined maroon oval markings down the back, while the cobras’ patterns were pure indigo. Stunningly beautiful specimens of two of my all-time favorite snake types. In order to transport them to the gas field, we double-bagged them, put them into a sturdy box, and loaded them onto the back seat of a second armored Mercedes. In addition to the armed driver, another heavily armed private security agent rode in the front passenger seat, with a very large shotgun resting between his legs. My head was spinning slightly at the idea of venomous snakes being driven under armed guard across one of the world’s most dangerous deserts. Even for me, this was a new one.
However, despite being in a Mercedes with bulletproof windows and metal plating protecting the rest, it was still too dangerous for me to be driven to the gas fields. I would almost certainly disappear without a trace along the way. Instead, I would be flown there. The only question was when. There was sporadic gunfire on the streets near our safe house, which made it very difficult to get to Karachi airport. After much debate, which was a bit like a conversation of “Hey, when do you think the rain will stop?” but involving bullets, the decision was made to risk the run to the airport. Back into the Mercedes, I was off to the airport, much more alert than when I arrived. I was soon whisked through departures to a private plane and on my way.

After a four-hour flight, we were at the gas fields, where we were met by four-wheel drives driven by more bodyguards, carrying machine guns this time. At the compound, as my gear was being unloaded from the vehicles, I was given a site induction. It commenced with the pointing out of the panic button and gas mask located inside by the door in my quarters. This was accompanied by a briefing on what to do in the event of an armed or chemical attack upon the compound, including where the extraction points were. I then met with the site doctor in order to review their medical protocols and newly acquired stocks of antivenom. Their occupational health and safety write-ups regarding envenomation were actually quite complete and only needed a little modification, such as adding information about the use of pressure-immobilization bandages. As all the local snakes were devastatingly potent and extremely fast-acting, it was my professional opinion that such first aid was reasonable for all species.

There is quite a debate globally among health professionals regarding the use of such bandaging. It’s standard for use on Australian snakebites because the effects are almost exclusively upon the nerves and blood, with local effects being typically only minimal. For non-Australian snakes, particularly vipers, there is a great reluctance to use them, based on the logic that it might make local tissue destruction worse due to the venom being concentrated in a small area. The latter is a reasonable consideration where a species is not highly toxic and deaths are rare. This is particularly the case for snakes such as American rattlesnakes, where the local tissue damage is so severe that necrosis may set in and the affected limb require amputation.

However, I am of the view that if it is a “life versus limb” consideration, there is absolutely no question about whether a compression bandage should be used. If I were bitten by a species known to be armed with a venom that causes local tissue death and was not likely to die before I could reach a hospital and have antivenom administered, I would certainly forgo the use of pressure-immobilization first aid. But if I were bitten by a species of any type for which lethal effects might occur before proper medical help could be reached, then I would apply pressure-immobilization first aid without hesitation.

While there was much hot-air debate, there had been shockingly little actual research into whether pressure-immobilization bandaging actually worsened the local effects. Interestingly enough, one of the few studies that had been conducted was actually upon Russell’s viper venom. The evidence gathered revealed that not only were the systemic effects slowed down, but the local effects were not worsened. In any case, a bite from the local snakes would be fast and lethal either through neurotoxic actions (black cobra and Sind krait) or devastation of the blood chemistry (Russell’s viper and saw-scaled viper). So in my professional opinion, pressure-immobilization bandaging should be administered routinely and quickly. I discussed all these nuances with the site doctor and he assiduously made notes. Their antivenom stocks consisted of either Pakistani or Saudi Arabian products and thus, between the two, they would expect reasonable cross-reactivity with the local snake venoms.

The next day, I unpacked the snakes. They had arrived during the night while I slept lightly, bathed in the dull red glow of the panic button and with my gas mask within easy reach. As I was setting up the office that was to be our headquarters for the next week, I felt it was appropriate to have the movie Team America playing on the laptop, but to avoid any “misunderstandings” I kept the volume very low.

We were going to train representatives from the security and engineering teams, so I then went to meet the team leaders of these two staff divisions. The first order of business was to inspect the sites where bites had occurred, or where snakes had been reported. Unsurprisingly, the epicenters were areas of shelter, food, or water. I inspected what measures they had taken to mitigate risk. As with their medical plan and antivenom stocks, they had done a very thorough job. I was able to point out some areas in building construction where metal grates had been put in to block access to snakes, but where some erosion had occurred during the torrential rains. This was how the krait had bypassed the snake-proofed doors and entered the sleeping quarters, resulting in the death of one of the workers. Most loose material was on flat pallets raised off the ground by resting on large blocks, thus creating an unfavorable habitat for snakes. Waste disposal behind the kitchen was also an area of superb management. All food waste was double-bagged to reduce the smell signature to mice or rats, and the large waste bins were emptied into garbage skips offset from the buildings. This was still the inevitable major attractant to snakes, due to the inherent populations of rodents, but the Pakistanis had done as good a job as could be expected and certainly far and above that which I had seen at other sites across the globe.

After this very long first day, I hit the site gym and then settled down to watch cricket with some of the staff. Once they found out I was a bit of a cricket tragic, they invited me to play in the game held each evening. The matches took place under the floodlights of the guard towers, with one of the machine-gun-toting guards acting as the umpire. Obviously, dissension was nonexistent. To discourage power hitting, any smash over the razor wire security fence was given only two points, not six, and the person was out. The reason for this was that the compound was on lockdown status each night, which meant the cricket ball could not be retrieved from outside the compound until first light the next day, by which time the children from the nearby local village had already picked it up. The team I was on fielded first, so I quickly had a chance to unleash my signature style of bowling, which is as erratic as it is fast, with each run-up just as likely to result in a no-ball as a cartwheeling wicket. One hit bystander later, I had secured my team a pair of wickets. Once we were batting, as I have a natural urge to crush a cricket ball, one that cannot be denied even if I’m trying to keep the ball on the ground and run safely for points, it only took three deliveries to tempt me to step up to a spin ball and hit it sweetly. Up it flew through the moth cloud around the lights and disappeared into the darkness beyond the fence. Two and out for me.

The following day was spent finishing the site inspection and typing up the report, including required improvements to the already excellent snake-proofing of the complex. I then carefully considered a number of areas for the different aspects of training. We wanted to make it as realistic as possible, particularly for the more challenging advanced aspects, but we, of course, did not want to lose a snake in the process. After that, I repeated the previous evening’s activities: workout, dinner, watching a bit of cricket on the television, then the regularly scheduled Night Test.

It was interesting to consider the social dynamics of such a pressure cooker of a remote site in a hostile environment. In line with the social norms of Pakistan, and with the majority of the workers being Pakistani Muslim, it was a male-only camp, which would be expected to lead to pent-up sexual frustration. However, this was very much not the case. In fact, there was a higher level of social benignity than I’d experienced in such situations previously. I put the strict ban on alcohol down as the major positive contributing factor. Of course, guards walking around with machine guns no doubt were also a massive contributor to the startling lack of the typical fuckwittedness that characterizes remote mining towns in Australia.

The following day Sean arrived and it was time to get down to business. First up was a series of lectures by Sean and myself regarding venomous snakes, their toxins, their natural history, and how to safely work with them. The core message was simple, but one with a deadly efficient message: it is safer to catch and remove a snake than it is to try to kill it. This was coupled with the fundamental premise that snake reduction through good planning is the ideal scenario. It is, of course, unrealistic to expect a snake-free environment, but the numbers can be minimized through the reduction of favorable habitats. Then it was on to the training.

We started the workers off on rubber snakes to familiarize them with where and how to grip a snake with the tongs without damaging it, while a team member had the hoop-bag ready for the snake to be deposited into. We emphasized the basics: the snakes are much more likely to go into a black bag, thinking it is a hole, than they are into a white bag. We also stressed the importance of double-bagging in order to minimize the odds of escape; and lastly, that the bags must be placed inside a sturdy, crush-proof, well-ventilated container. We finished the day with the participants’ first experience with live, large diadem snakes, because they are a species very ready to bite, while at the same time being harmless to humans. This desensitized them to the concept of getting close to that which they fear the most—and a bit of blood always reinforces a lesson. However, this crew was the most attentive and diligent of any group Sean or I had ever worked with. They displayed a willingness to listen and the ability to learn. They also had a tunnel-vision focus upon the task at hand. There weren’t any mishaps with any of these long, agile snakes—other than that a few of the crew discovered the joys of getting crapped on by a snake.

At the conclusion of the day, we joined them for a new evening activity: beach volleyball. There was a well-set-up court on the far side of the compound, also under guard tower lights. The game was far less intricate than the ones I was used to playing in my competition team in Brisbane. The players packed themselves, about twenty to a side, into a solid mass of beard. There was a conspicuous lack of bumping or setting. Rather, hits largely consisted of a unique style that looked like some sort of mutated tennis two-handed backhand. The balls rocketed back and forth at high speed, often with some unexpected spin brought about by the unorthodox hitting style. Bumping was merely a case of it hitting off someone’s head at high speed. When Sean and I did a tidy bump-set-spike between the two of us, we were looked at like the white aliens we were. Quietly, and just between us, Sean and I named this new game “scud ball.”

The next day we gave a brief review lecture that was a synopsis of the previous day’s training and had all the teams redo the tasks they’d learned. We had them working in teams of three: one with a hook, one with a pair of tongs, and one with a bag. We had them switch equipment and roles until all were adept and the teams fluid. We then brought out the venomous snakes, first placing them on the wide lawns with shortly shorn grass. The cobras and vipers provided good examples of the two basic snake types of the region: thin, fast-moving snakes that are difficult to capture but, once captured, are easy to handle; and stout, slow-moving snakes that are easy to capture but then very difficult to handle due to their strength and long mobile fangs. We stressed a hands-off approach to snakes, and that under no circumstance should they try to pin a snake and grasp it behind the head. Emphasized continuously were the three Cs: calmness of demeanour, clear line of sight, and communication between team members.

Over the next few days we rapidly moved them on to more progressively challenging tasks, such as retrieving a cobra from under a lawnmower or a viper curled up in a large flowerpot. We then placed three large cobras inside the large metal garbage skip, and multiple vipers underneath as well as within the stacked containers of glass bottles. The final exam for each team of three was finding multiple black cobras let loose at night among the bins, gardening equipment, or rubbish. We also took them out into the field to show them the natural ecology of the snakes so that they could better understand their behavior. Whenever we left the compound, Sean and I were each assigned at least three bodyguards with machine guns to accompany us at all times. Of course, we used them as assistant snake catchers.

Among the participants was the site doctor. At the beginning, he was terrified of snakes but he gamely took the course and by the end of it was absolutely in love with the diadem snakes and posed for a picture holding one, which he then proudly displayed on his desk. That was a notably special outcome of the training. The cross-cultural communication between the group and us was among the most satisfying of my life.

Yet there was one very unsettling local interaction. As we were driving through one of the nearby small villages on the way back from snake catching, I spotted graffiti in the form of a ten-foot-long, three-foot-high multicolored flag with a sword horizontally across it and boldly written Arabic lettering above. I did not need to understand the local language to get the gist of what was being so clearly stated. I rolled the tinted window down and started snapping photos, only to be photo-bombed by a man with wild eyes who appeared from nowhere right in front of my face. He filled half the photo, with just a red motorcycle in view in the remainder of the frame. Ten minutes later, the same motorcycle caught up with us at high speed; the figure riding it, clothed from head to toe in white cloth and with familiar wild eyes, gave me a death stare. I was convinced that he was a suicide bomber and that we were going to die. The guards felt the same. They trained the machine guns on the motorcycle as we accelerated away. Had he pulled closer, they would have opened fire and filled him with holes. That was enough for me.
This was the last time I left the compound before we returned to Karachi. Back in my room, while typing up the notes for the day, the Bullet for My Valentine song “Scream Aim Fire” seemed rather appropriate to have blasting out of the speakers, as did Slayer’s “War Ensemble.”

Back in Karachi, we milked the cobras and Russell’s vipers used in the training and Syed stored the venoms away. I expressed my gratitude for his and Mehtab’s help and invited them to visit me in Australia. Once at the airport, we ran into a few complications that were trivial issues magnified by a generalized hostility toward Westerners. First was that I had forgotten to print out my itinerary, so the petty dictator at the door was not going to let me in, even though Sean had his. After much arguing, I managed to catch the eye of an Emirates agent walking past and we were ushered in. Then at the security scanning of our luggage, our snake hooks and tongs were viewed with grave suspicion. The language barrier was not helping our cause and we were getting nowhere with our explanations of their non-weapon nature. Luckily, when a more senior person was called, he looked at me and said two English words, “National Geographic?” He had recognized me from various nature documentaries on television and we had no more concerns.

They did, however, all take great interest in my Toughbook laptop computer—not out of concern, just marveling at it. So I decided to demonstrate its famed indestructibility by slamming it against the corner of a desk. The underside of the laptop made an audible crunching sound as it impacted. In my showing off, I had inadvertently discovered the computer’s Achilles heel. There was a small region that, for reasons beyond me, was not heavily reinforced and I had punched a hole into the computer, with various bits of important-looking wiring now hanging out. As we turned the corner down the hall to go to our flight, I could still hear them laughing loudly, with evident delight.

Three days later, we arrived back in Australia just in time for Christmas. On December 28, 2009, the Taliban attacked Karachi for the first time ever. A massive bomb turned the windows of our safe house into a storm of slicing triangles, illuminated into a cascade of reflected color in the dust-filled air as the harsh sunlight beamed in through jagged cracks in the wall. Forty people were killed and scores more injured.
I spent Christmas, New Year’s, and all of January incapacitated with some sort of dysentery I had picked up in Pakistan. Eight pints of blood-laden diarrhea came out of me over the course of each day. I lost many pounds due to the malnutrition resulting from the inability to keep anything inside me. My doctors struggled to get on top of it. Treatment was hampered by an inability to diagnose exactly which weird microorganism was causing it. Since the doctors could not give it a name, I just ended up referring to it as Pakistass.

Once I recovered, Syed flew over and we investigated the venom samples. It turned out that the black cobra venom was extremely different from that of other cobras. While it affected the nerves as potently as any other cobra venom, it also attacked the muscles like sea snake venom would. The cheap Indian antivenom, which had flooded the market, turned out to be completely useless. Worryingly, while the Sind krait had venom effects typical of other species of krait, the Indian antivenom also did not affect it. This had huge implications, since the Pakistan-specific antivenom was in very short supply and the Indian antivenom was currently supplied as a cure. Based upon our results, Syed and Mehtab spearheaded a new initiative to develop antivenom for Pakistan that would take these results into account.

19 Most Frequent Dreams in the World

What Does It Mean to Dream of Owls

What Does It Mean to Dream of a Ship

What Does It Mean to Dream of Whales

What Does It Mean to Dream of Chocolate

What Does It Mean to Dream of Doors

What Does It Mean to Dream of Stars

What Does It Mean to Dream About Work

What Does It Mean to Dream of Elephants

What Does It Mean to Dream of Snow

What Does It Mean to Dream of Birds

What Does It Mean to Dream of Gold

What Does It Mean to Dream of Ghosts

What Does It Mean to Dream of Celebrities

What Does It Mean to Dream of Dolphins

What Does It Mean to Dream of Traveling

What Does It Mean to Dream of Bears

What Does It Mean to Dream of a War

What Does It Mean to Dream of Rain

What Does It Mean to Dream of Sharks

What Does It Mean to Dream of Bulls

What Does It Mean to Dream of Crocodiles

What Does It Mean to Dream of Snails

What Does It Mean to Dream of Crabs

What Does It Mean to Dream of Saving Someone

What Does It Mean to Dream of Garbage

What Does It Mean to Dream of Packing Your Bags

What Does It Mean to Dream of Fog

What Does It Mean to Dream of an Operation

What Does It Mean to Dream of Jewels

What Does It Mean to Dream of Roses

What Does It Mean to Dream of Leaks

What Does It Mean to Dream About Clothes

What Does It Mean to Dream of a Disease

What Does It Mean to Dream of Policemen

What Does It Mean to Dream of Lizards

What Does It Mean to Dream of the End of the World

What Does It Mean to Dream of Strangers

What Does It Mean to Dream of Fruits

What Does It Mean to Dream of Wolves

What Does It Mean to Dream About Ants

What Does It Mean to Dream of a Swimming Pool

What Does It Mean to Dream of Dancing

What Does It Mean to Dream of a Party

What Does It Mean to Dream of a Fight

What Does It Mean to Dream of a Tsunami

What Does It Mean to Dream About Food

What Does It Mean to Dream of Lions

What Does It Mean to Dream of Fish

What Does It Mean to Dream of a Car Accident

What Does It Mean to Dream of the Person You Like

What Does It Mean to Dream of Turtles

What Does It Mean to Dream of Friends

What Does It Mean to Dream About Horses

What Does It Mean to Dream of Water

What Does It Mean to Dream of Mice

What Does It Mean to Dream That Your Hair Is Cut

What Does It Mean to Dream About Lice

What Does It Mean to Dream of Dogs

What Does It Mean to Dream of Fire

What Does It Mean to Dream of Blood

Dream Interpretation About Snake

Dream Interpretation About King

Dream Interpretation


7 Most Venomous Snakes in the Earth
Number 7 Russell’s Viper
For most poisonous snakes the percentage of dry bites is relatively high. But the Russell's Viper always goes for the maximum venom dose. A full grown Russell Viper, also called the chain vibrators India's deadliest snake considering for thousands of deaths each year. Those snakes are found throughout most of the world. But arguably the most venomous are the source caled vibrantly chain Viper found primarily in the center East and Central Asia particularly India China and South East Asia.

6 Tiger Snake
Found in Australia.The tiger snake is a very potent neurotoxic venom. Tiger snake is recognizable because of its width of yellow bands the bites are very accurate and without medicine will result in death nearly three-quarters of the time symptoms can include localized pain in the foot and neck region tingling numbness and sweating followed by a fairly rapid onset of breathing difficulties and paralysis.

5 king Cobra or Indian Cobra
King cobra is one of the largest venomous snake in the world and also one of the aggressive sneaking the plane. This snakes can run fast and bite quickly the another those venoms contain the neurotoxic. So if you get bites of this snakes, your body will be paralyzed and you can't take beating properly three to six hours without anti-venom your blood will be the dilemma and you will die.

4 Black Mamba
this snake is usually found in Africa they are identified to be highly aggressive and strike with deadly shortness. They are also the fastest land snake in the world able of approaching speeds of up to 20 km/h. A single bite holds efficient venom to kill then humans the black member will bite many of time when it attacks if the bite is not treated it is nearly always going to result in death

3 Eastern Brown Snake
If you want to know which snakes is most aggressive venomous sounds deadly combined Eastern brown snake is one of them you can found this deadly snake in Australia, Papua New Guinea and Indonesia this snake venom contains pre and postsynaptic neurotoxins which are bites this snake is fast-moving can be threatening under certain conditions and has been known to chase offenders and frequently strike at them

2 Inland Taipan
Inland Taipan is the most toxic venom of any land snake in the world you can commonly found in semi-arid regions of Central East Australia the highest yield reported for one single  bite is 110 milligrams.

1 Belcher’s Sea Snake
According to various experts the belches see snake's venom is about a 100 times more toxic than any other snakes in the world are several milligrams is robust enough to kill 1000 humans less than one-quarter of bites will include venom and they are relatively docile the fisherman is normally the victims of these attacks as they encounter the species when they pick nets from the sea located in waters off South East Asia and northern Australia. The good thing is that this snake is considered to be very timid and would take a lot of provoking to get it to bite you

10 Most Dangerous Venomous Snake in the World
If we are scared of a bite, it surely has to come from a snake. Well, that’s when we aren’t considering the ones inflicted by a shark that’ll probably chomp off your entire foot, the focus is on an “innocent” bite that just leaves you paralyzed or dead! Even though not all snakes are venomous, some are and that is enough for us to be scared of them all. The scary bit is that some of them have the potential to inflict a death sentence within 30 minutes! Wanna know about the most venomous snakes in the world? ut first you need a good news, so know that most of the snakes aren’t coming to get you- they just need privacy and if you don’t come in the way, you are safe!

Number 10 Rattlesnake
The name comes from the rattle located at the end of their tails, which makes a loud rattling noise when vibrated. Take that as a warning bell, when you hear it- you run! Being a mixture of five to 15 enzymes, their venom is hemotoxic, destroying tissue, causing necrosis and coagulopathy. Rattlesnakes use their venom to immobilize and disable the prey, where their digestive enzymes break down tissue to prepare for later ingestion. If you aren’t already trembling, remember that rattlesnakes are the leading contributor to snakebite injuries in North America. Scary!

Number 9
Death Adder When a snake is named after death, you have no choice but to be scared or rather VERY scared! Native to Australia, this snake has a broad flattened, triangular head and a thick body with colored bands and reaches a maximum body length of 70–100 cm. Death adders possess the longest fangs of any Australian snake and is one of the most venomous land snakes globally. Its venom contains neurotoxin which can cause paralysis or even kill, that too within six hours after the bite. It can deliver the fastest strike among all venomous snakes recorded in Australia. Shouldn’t we be scared?

Number 8 Viper
The vipers have relatively long, hinged fangs that permit deep penetration and injection of venom. Yikes! Their venom contains an abundance of protein-degrading enzymes that cause pain, necrosis, blood loss from cardiovascular damage and disruption of the blood-clotting system. All this leads to a sudden drop in blood pressure which can cause DEATH! Doesn’t sound nice! Apart from being venomous, why else should you fear the vipers? Simple, they are one of the most widely spread snakes so your chances of encountering them are pretty high! Anybody looking forward to this meeting?

Number 7 Philippine Cobra
This 1m long snake has long cervical ribs capable of expanding, so when threatened, a hood can be formed. But that’s not why the Philippine Cobra has made it to this list, there are some interesting things awaiting your attention! Its venom can cause neurotoxicity and respiratory paralysis which start with symptoms like headache, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, dizziness, and difficulty breathing. You know what’s the most terrifying thing about this snake? They are capable of accurately spitting their venom at a target up to 3m, now that takes the “maintain distance” norm to a whole new level!

Number 6 Tiger Snake
How about we tell you that Tiger snakes accounted for 17% of identified snakebite victims in Australia between 2005 and 2015? A tiger snake’s bite causes localized pain in the foot and neck region, tingling, numbness, and sweating, followed by a fairly rapid onset of breathing difficulties and paralysis. The mortality rate from untreated bites is reported to be between 40 and 60%. That’s already too much to handle but wait for the worse. Tiger snakes give birth to 20 to 30 live young! Well, such venomous snakes should be given family planning lectures, not for them but for our life, don’t you agree?

Number 5 Black Mamba
The longest species of venomous snake indigenous to the African continent, Black Mamba grows to about 2-3m and its skin color varies from grey to dark brown. When you see a Black Mamba opening its inky-black mouth, spreading its narrow neck-flap and hissing, run for your life because the snake is feeling threatened. So what happens when the snake feels threatened from you? It might give you a series of kisses with its fangs! And since its venom is primarily composed of potent neurotoxins, it may cause a fast onset of symptoms. Even though you see them as aggressive beings, they would try to flee from humans unless cornered. Strange!

Number 4 Taipan
These large, fast-moving Australasian snakes are considered some of the most deadly snakes. They possess highly neurotoxic venom with some other toxic constituents that have multiple effects on victims. It may paralyze the victim's nervous system and clot the blood, which then blocks blood vessels. The venom in a Taipan is strong enough to kill up to 12,000 guinea pigs. Like seriously? Another problem associated with this snake is that due to its larger side, it is capable of injecting a large quantity of venom in the victim! OMG, we are scared for life!

Number 3 Blue Krait
The Blue Krait snake may attain a total length of 108 cm, with a tail 16 cm long. Dorsally, it has a pattern of 27-34 dark-brown, black, or bluish-black crossbands on the body and tail, which are narrowed and rounded on the sides. Its venom has caused an untreated mortality rate of 60-70% on humans. The venom is a neurotoxin, 16 times more potent than that of a Cobra which quickly induces muscle paralysis. Another shocking thing about them is that they hunt and kill other snakes, even cannibalizing other Kraits. A snake that is also a cannibal, fear has a new definition!

Number 2 Eastern Brown Snake
If we tell you that 1/14,000 of an ounce of its venom is enough to kill an adult human, what would be your reaction? Fear, obviously- we were just checking if you are still in your senses or have passed out already! Since its preferred habitat is along the major population centers of Australia, you have all the more reasons to fear it! Alright, we know that’s too much to bear so we decided to show you the positives. Even though the venom contains both neurotoxins and blood coagulants, less than half of bites contain venom and they prefer not to bite if at all possible. Finally some good news!

Number 1 Inland Taipan
When we say that the most venomous snake is endemic to semi-arid regions of central east Australia, it comes as no shock, right? Its venom, drop for drop, is by far the most toxic of any snake! Who would want to be anywhere near it, not us for sure! It is estimated that one bite possesses enough lethality to kill at least 100 fully grown men, and, depending on the nature of the bite, it has the potential to kill someone in as little as 30 to 45 minutes if left untreated.

Most Dangerous Sea Creatures
From aggressive fish with a mouthful of teeth, to the most venomous marine animal, here are 8 sea creatures you should watch out for!

8. Titan Triggerfish
There's a misconception when swimming in the ocean that it's "obvious" which creatures will attack you and which ones won't. Like the Titan Triggerfish. Take a look at it. What do you think? Looks like a pretty regular fish right? Exactly! Plus, if you do a little research on Triggerfish as a species, they're actually pretty friendly fish, but this one is in a league of its own, and not in a good way. The Titan Triggerfish are wired to be very territorial, and as such, they'll go to great lengths in order to protect what is theirs. So you have to be careful if they’re in a bad mood!! They can grow to about a foot in length, and use their teeth to attack anyone or anything that they think is an “intruder". And they can be quite vicious too, because their teeth are incredibly sharp, and their jaws can clamp down with a ton of force. They can be found in most of the Indo-Pacific and usually are shy around divers. But if its reproductive season and divers are lurking around their nests, all bets are off. They're so territorial and protective that they've been known to attack divers who come anywhere close to their homes. And experienced divers look out for these fish whenever they go close to their reefs because their bite can be toxic and cause paralysis. Good news is, they like to attack the colorful parts like fins, which helps reduce the risk of personal injury. However, some unlucky divers have been knocked out cold!

7. Flower Urchin
While some creatures might look like harmless plants, be careful because appearances can be deceiving!! The flower urchin looks like a nice little bouquet of flowers, and it is one of the most frequently encountered sea urchins. Which is not that great because these echinoderms know how to attack when the time is right! There are spines sticking out of their “flowers" which are anything but decorative. The flower urchin is the “World’s Most Venomous” sea urchin and if their venom gets into your body, you're in for a very rough ride. The venom is known to causes spasms in humans, and that's just the beginning. You can also get convulsions, suffer from drowning, go through shock, get paralyzed, and yes, you can also die. And it doesn't take much to get the venom in you, all it takes is the tiniest contact with your bare skin. Flower Urchins have caused many deaths over the years, and this has made them infamous among divers. Good news is that sea urchins are defensive creatures, they aren’t trying to hurt you on purpose so if you do get jabbed, it’s most likely your fault. Just trust me, and don't go near this thing. And now for number 6, but first can you name the most venomous marine animal? Let us know your answer in the comments below! The answer is coming up! And if you are new here, welcome, and be sure to subscribe so you don’t miss out on the latest videos!!

6. Eels
Eels are special creatures, and there are many different types of them living underneath the waters. And many you need to be careful of. Some just like to strike, but others, like the Electric Eel, like to just send a shock through your system. The Electric Eel is a creature that can well and truly charge itself up for an attack, and given that you're most likely underwater when you meet this creature, it means the attack is all the more potent. The cells within their bodies build up electrolytes, and when they build up about 6000 of them, they can release a 600-volt charge into an enemy. They also emit a low-level charge that they use like radar. Plus they can grow up to 8 feet long! Eels can be very hostile, and they have been known to attack humans at times. And 600 volts to a human can do some serious damage, not the least of which is stopping your heart flat. So if you see an eel, swim the other way! Just in case!

5. Barracuda
Barracuda are pretty recognizable fish. Not only does it get a bad rap because it killed Nemo’s family, but also because of it’s razor sharp teeth and long shiny body. Of all the different types of Barracuda, the Great Barracuda is the most impressive. After all, it has the name "Great" in it. This creature can be up to six feet long, which is pretty menacing on its  own, but its trademark is its speed. It cuts through water like a bullet does through air. It'll race towards anything and either slam into it, or bite it with its teeth, which as you can see are numerous, and razor sharp! In reality barracudas are not the most dangerous creature you will encounter but they have a very bad reputation. There have been about 25 reported attacks in the last 100 years, so why are they so scary? Because they are dangerous by design! They are often accused of attacking humans, even when they're not provoked. They are attracted to shiny objects because it looks like the reflection of a fish belly. Always avoid wearing any jewelry while diving!! Some divers and snorkelers have been attacked around their head as the barracuda tries to get to the object. They'll strike at them like they stole something. They might also mistake white, pale skin for fish skin. They will often get into fights with people fishing with spears as they try to get to the kill. There are even reports of Barracudas jumping out of the ocean to attack people on boats. They’re not scared of anything! And they’re kind of mean.

4. Pufferfish
There are many fish in the oceans that scare people away, but for entirely different reasons. While an eel or a barracuda is a physical threat, a Pufferfish is a threat inside and out. On the outside, the Puffer Fish has plenty of spines, and if threatened, such as when a human approaches it, it'll fill itself with water and even air, to make it look much larger than before. It’s more of a death sentence if you try to swallow it, but actually I think it’s kind of cute. Then, there's what's on the inside. Mainly, poison, lots of it. While many creatures have poison in them, it's usually located to a central area, like how snakes have venom in their fangs and can have them milked without harming the meat inside. For Pufferfish though, some species have poison all over their entire bodies. Tetrodotoxin to be exact which is 1200 times more poisonous than cyanide. There is enough toxin in one pufferfish to kill 30 adult humans. And there is no known antidote. Selling Pufferfish meat is outlawed in most countries, for our own good. Why? Well, it's because though you can get rid of poison in meat, the Pufferfish has it so completely intertwined with its being that if you fail in any way to get the poison all out, you will die. Currently, the only places that serve Puffer Fish are Japan, China, and Korea. Known as fugu, it is only prepared by licensed chefs who are specifically trained to handle Pufferfish. Even so, there are several deaths annually.

3. Stingray
The Stingray is one creature that everyone should fear and respect. While their attacks are rare, they do happen, and like some other creatures on this list, they’re not afraid of attacking when they feel provoked. The most famous case of a Stingray attack was the strike and killing of beloved zookeeper and animal conservationist Steve Irwin, aka the Crocodile Hunter. Irwin was underwater doing some filming for a show that was going to be called "Ocean's Deadliest", he was also going to film some footage for his daughter Bindi, who had a show herself. Irwin was famous for his ability to read a situation and interact with animals, and according to his crew, he gave the Stingray in question plenty of room. Irwin was just trying to get a shot of the Stingray swimming away from the camera. However, as he did so, the Stingray became defensive, and started flailing its tail around, and when it did, one strike caught Irwin in the heart. He quickly pulled it out, which was maybe the worst thing he could do. Despite the quick actions of his crew, Irwin passed away. It was very much a freak accident because you can be struck by a stingray barb and survive. But the barb slipped in between Irwin's rib cage. It’s hard to survive a direct hit to the heart. Rays also have venom in their barbs, which is not necessarily fatal, but it hurts a lot. It has enzymes and seratonin which make your muscles severly contract. Heat breaks down the venom and can limit the amount of damage. But if you are stung by an internal organ, your chances of survival will plummet.

2. Sharks
You don’t need me to tell you about sharks! While you can argue that sharks have always been feared, it was "Jaws" that helped bring the hysteria of sharks attacking humans to life. Which is actually kind of ironic, as most shark species DON'T attack humans, even when provoked. Shark attacks are actually pretty low when you look at statistics from around the world. But still, just because they don't attack a lot, doesn't mean they don't attack at all. And when they do attack, it makes worldwide news. Once one attack happens, everyone seems to freak out! Others get scared of the water, and I’m sure you’ve likely heard of one shark bite story or another. So the question is, what shark species attack humans the most? Well, that would be Great White Sharks, Tiger Sharks, and Bull Sharks. But that doesn't mean that's the order of most attacks animal. Great White Sharks are the most infamous sharks on the planet, thanks to Jaws, but the Tiger and Bull are just as fearsome, and arguably more aggressive than their Great White brethren. In fact, more people are killed by dogs than by Great White Sharks every year. Still though, these sharks are known to attack people, whether it be for territory, for food, or just basic animal instinct. As always though, we are way more of a threat to them, then they are to us.

1. Box Jellyfish
Surprised? I know it may seem like sharks are the obvious answer for dangerous sea creatures, but when it comes to the Box Jellyfish, it's a whole other story. Answer: According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the Australian box jellyfish is the most venomous marine animal. The Box Jellyfish lives in the Indo-Pacific region and northern Australia. As such, more people are killed in Australia by the Jellyfish than snakes,  sharks and crocodiles...combined! How is this possible? Well, one part is the location. As noted, they live in the coastal waters of Australia and many people are out and about swimming. The Box Jellyfish have about 60 tentacles on their body, and each of them can extend to about 15 feet long. Which means you don't even have to be close to the head of it for the creature to kill you. Each tentacle! 60 times 50, you do the math! (Also watch out for the Irukandji jellyfish!) Many people also die in the Philippines from box jellyfish stings, as well as Indonesia but they are not required to have death certificates so data is hard to get. No matter what way you look at it, these creatures are deadly, and their toxins can wreak havoc on the toughest of creatures. Also I have bad news for you, they are are starting to be found in other parts of the ocean, including the coast of the US. While it might not be something we need to worry about, you never know what the consequences will be as the ocean waters get warmer.

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