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Administrative Organization: Principles and Types

 The administrative organization is the process of planning, control, direct and organize the resources of a company, in order to achieve the objectives of it. He is in charge of coordinating the different departments, together with the employees who work in each of these.


The objective is to be able to work as a team and consolidate the purposes set out by the organization. Administrative organization enables optimal use of resources through meticulous planning and control in the workplace. For this, it is necessary to make decisions and solve the problems that arise during this process.


One of the resources where it has direct action is the human. The main intention is to create a peaceful and positive environment, linking each employee with their work and with the company.


The organization must work closely with the staff, valuing and encouraging their work. In this way, it will give them a feeling of security and unity that will translate into a joint effort to achieve the objectives of the company.


Principles of administrative organization

Related to objectives

A company must have its purposes clearly and precisely. There the scope of the group will be reflected, which will define the different strategies and actions that will be programmed and executed.


All actions established in the company must be related to the objectives and goals of the organization, regardless of the area to which they belong. This will reduce the waste of doing work oriented towards another north that is not required.


Specialization

The work to be carried out by the staff must be limited to a specific field of action. To achieve efficiency it is necessary to subdivide the task to be carried out into clearly defined activities, since the more specific these are, the greater the individual's effectiveness in doing it.


Hierarchy

An administrative organization is made up of multiple organs, which is why it is imperative to order them, taking as a criterion a series of relationships of supremacy and subordination. The intention is that the person who is at the top is the one who exercises control over the subordinates.


In this hierarchical order, the higher body can direct, inspect and order those below it. However, the power is not absolute; it has its legal limits.


Parity between authority and responsibility

Within the organization it is important to delegate responsibilities to the people who are considered qualified to carry out the task. This must be accompanied by a degree of authority, an essential aspect for the fulfillment of what is assigned.


Unity of command

Each function within the administrative organization must be assigned to a department, which must have a single head. This must be clearly defined, in order to avoid ambiguous situations as far as leadership is concerned.


Diffusion

The functions of each position that have responsibility and authority must be published, as well as provided (in writing) to all those people in the company who are related to it.


Breadth or scope of control

A boss must have a maximum number of subordinates. Each charge has specific characteristics, and based on these characteristics, this amount will be calculated.


This limit - in terms of subordinates in command - is established in order not to overload the manager and allow him to perform his functions efficiently.


Coordination

Each unit that makes up the organization has its specific function, but all must be synchronized towards the achievement of the company's goals.


The idea is that they are not isolated or antagonistic entities, but that they work harmoniously with each other. In this way, all parties will function efficiently and in a timely manner.


Continuity

Once an administrative organization has been structured and established, the structure must be maintained, making the necessary improvements while receiving the necessary adjustments, considering changes in the internal and external means linked to the company.


Types of administrative organization

Linear organization

It is a form where there is a hierarchy of authority: there is a boss with their respective subordinates. Its organization is simple and pyramidal, where the lines of authority and responsibility are direct and unique.


Communication strictly follows the formal lines of the organization chart. When you move up in the organization you have a global and centralized vision of the company.


As you descend, there is a more specific view of each function. The authority has centralized decision-making and control over the organization.


Functional organization

In this organization the people dedicated to a common activity are grouped into departments. Tasks are grouped by function, being one of the most basic ways to divide work areas.


The authority is functional, there is not only one superior boss but several, each one in their specialty. Communication between each of the levels is direct and without intermediaries.


Decisions are delegated to each of the functional positions, with each position providing the organization with an advisory service in its specialty.


Matrix organization

It is based on the creation of teams, made up of employees from various areas who have a project as a common goal. Once this is finished, the organization stops working as such.


Human and material resources are temporarily assigned to the different projects, for which the employees have two bosses: one of the position and the other of the project.


To carry out the project, several experts meet in a work team, so the hierarchy is reduced, with a greater degree of flexibility and autonomy. Because several departments are involved, communication is direct between them.


Organization in committees

The committee is made up of a group of people with line and staff authority , who are in charge of studying a specific situation. There are formal or informal:


Formal

Their authority is delimited, as well as their duties, since they are integrated within the formal organization of the company. They are generally of a permanent nature.


Informal

They are formed when you want to carry out a particular study. They are organized by a person who wants a study or decision on a problem, for a short period of time.


Clover organization

Its objective is to focus its efforts on key proposals and functions, leaving the fulfillment of complementary activities to external professionals.


This organization is currently in vogue, as managers are reducing their operating costs by hiring outside companies to do certain jobs.


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