google.com, pub-6663105814926378, DIRECT, f08c47fec0942fa0 Primitive Time of the Administration: origin, characteristics 4289

Primitive Time of the Administration: origin, characteristics

 The primitive age of administration is one that was marked by the dominance of the need to organize to meet a specific objective in the most efficient way possible.


From the beginning, man understood that only by forming productive groups would he be able to achieve his goals of protection, food and livelihood. It also recognized the need to manage the resources it had in order to survive.


From the moment that the human being had to perform a heavy task, such as hunting large animals, collecting food or preparing a cave to live in, he understood that the only way to do this was by delegating tasks and structuring the work.


Man has always worked to survive, trying to carry out his activities in the most effective way possible. Thus, it has put into practice the golden law of the administration, which is to obtain the maximum results with a minimum of effort.


Depending on the socio-historical period, people have found different ways of managing and organizing their assets, in order to satisfy their needs. Many of these principles of the nascent administration were constituted in the bases and guidelines for the following societies.


Historical background

Consciously or unconsciously, the human being, throughout its history, has put into practice various administrative principles. These have helped him perform his tasks more efficiently.


In its beginnings, man was nomadic and lived by hunting, fishing and gathering fruits. From the moment he realized that teamwork was more beneficial, he began to organize. In this way, he established groups to join forces and achieve the common goal.


As the task became more difficult, the man structured the tasks in a more specialized way, then the leaders emerged, who directed the operations.


Emergence of agriculture

Directly associated with the emergence of agriculture as the main economic activity, humanity enters its sedentary phase. This implied having a better administration, it was not only necessary to hunt and gather, but also to sow, take care of this planting and harvest the food.


One of the most important advances of primitive society, apart from coordinated work, was the division of labor in a natural way, considering sex and age.


This is a living example of administrative work, which refers to planning, organizing and executing a strategy in order to achieve a common objective. Population growth was another factor that influenced the need to coordinate efforts in the social group.


Each of these successes and failures of civilization was transformed into an empirical administrative theory, which was transmitted to each subsequent generation.


Source

The administration has a vast history dating back to the time of ancient Egypt and ancient Greece.


Since ancient times, emperors and kings required tax collectors and treasurers to manage their government affairs. At that time, knowing how to read, write, add and subtract was practically restricted to the elite.


As a consequence, the need for expert officials with these skills was vitally important for the maintenance of legal records, the payment and feeding of the various armies, and the collection of taxes.


As empires expanded and military power expanded its control over other continents, the need for a more structured administration grew.


In this historical period, slavery arose, in which the slave had no rights and was used to carry out any type of work.


The administration was characterized by strict supervision of labor and inhumane treatment of slaves, which had a notable influence on the fall of the empires that reigned in this period.


Roman law

A fundamental contribution to modern administration is Roman law, which was the basis for the organization of the State and the rules that guided the activities and behaviors of society.


Such is the influence of this legacy that today a great majority of the institutions of the peoples in the world are legally based on the legacies of Rome and its philosophers.


Characteristics

Greco-Roman period

- The work ethic was developed and the application of the scientific method in solving problems began.


- The principle of specialization was established, which spoke of the natural aptitudes of the individual.


- The public administration was divided into monarchies, aristocracies, tyrannies and democracy.


- Three administrative forms were distinguished: executive, legislative and judicial.


- The philosopher Pericles established the basic administrative principle, which referred to the selection of personnel.


- The first advances were made in the legislation, as well as in the regulation of work and in the activities of the State.


- The companies were classified as public, which carried out the activities of the State; in semi-public, they belonged to the unions; and private, belonging to the people.


Feudal era

- The feudal lord was the one who established the criteria of the administration and exercised total control over the production of the serf.


- Socially there were bondage relationships.


- The artisan workshops and the trades system were founded.


- The unions were formed, which would be the antecedents of the unions, which regulated wages and working hours.


- In the last years of this period a significant number of serfs became independent workers. Thus new authority structures were established in the administration.


- The family economy developed on a large scale, thus giving way to a city economy.


Industrial Revolution

- The artisans were replaced by specialized workers.


- The main characteristic of the Industrial Revolution was the exploitation of man by man in industries.


- Hierarchies were created within the work unit, in order to delegate responsibilities. Then the figure of director, manager, worker, among others, appears.


- All the changes in the production systems led the administration to implement work standards and various coordination strategies.


- The need arose to study the factors that affected productivity and new management approaches, aimed at improving the work environment and production.


- Motivated that wages were not fixed, scholars of the time strove to create certain principles to regulate them. This is how the foundations of punctuality awards, production bonuses, etc. were born.



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