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Alejandro Sawa: biography and works

 Alejandro Sawa (1862-1909) was a Spanish writer and journalist, considered one of the main figures in the literary bohemian current of his country. As is often related to this ideology, it ended its days in a tragic and dark way.


Sawa was the quintessential icon of the lifestyle of the artist who voluntarily chooses to live outside the system. Furthermore, he sought to intermingle in a single life the sublime of the intellectual world with the thick mud of hunger and misery.


In a dark suit, Alexander wandered the nightclubs of Paris and met with other intellectual colleagues. In this way he honored the world of ideas to the detriment of the banalities of the material sphere.


Biography

Alejandro Sawa was born on March 15, 1862. He was baptized under the name of Alejandro María de los Dolores de Gracia Esperanza del Gran Poder Antonio José Longinos del Corazón de Jesús de la Santísima Trinidad Sawa Martinez.


Sawa grew up in a family with Greek descent and dedicated to the food trade. He was the first of five children, two of whom, in addition to him, showed an affinity for the literary world.


In his younger years he studied at the Seminary of Malaga. From this institution, contrary to what was expected, he left with an anti-clerical ideology by interrupting his studies. He studied law for a year, but did not complete his training in this area.


At approximately 23 years of age, he moved to the Spanish capital. In Madrid, he dedicated himself to writing his first book and during his stay he collaborated with the newspaper “el Motín” as part of the writing team.


Also, in that city, he wrote five novels. In 1890 he went to Paris, where he immersed himself in the bohemian scene. He resided in the artistic Latin Quarter.


Life in paris

Living in Paris he met Jeanne Poirier. He married her and together they had a single daughter, whom they named Elena Rosa. Those years in Paris were considered by the artist as the best of all his times.


He worked for Garnier, a famous publisher of the time that was in the process of writing an encyclopedic dictionary. During that time, he was in contact with writers from the burgeoning literary movements.


In 1896 he returned to his native country as the father of the family. After some financial difficulties, he got a job in the journalistic field with the support of his brother Miguel.


At the beginning of the new century, a hemiplegia seriously affected his mother. The disease limited his mobility and his father died shortly after. Even Sawa's own health and financial situation were deteriorating as well.


Death

At age 44, he lost his vision, which made his situation even worse. Three years later, in 1909, he also lost his sanity. Finally, he passed away on March 3, 1909. His remains received a humble burial in the Amudena cemetery, Madrid.


Plays

At the age of 16, Alexander Sawa wrote a pamphlet entitled The Pontificate and Pius IX . This was inspired by the bishop of the seminary he attended in Malaga. Seven years after this initial foray into the world of letters, he published his first novel La mujer de todo el mundo .


His first work was a critique of the double standards of high society. It had a positive reception among the dissident circles of Spanish literature of the time.


A year later, Legal Crime came to light . In this work Sawa raised the controversies between science and religion. This combination of themes was in vogue in the late 19th century when numerous scientific discoveries were made.


In 1887 he wrote Declaration of a Vanquished . The protagonist of his work was a man who traveled from the interior of the country to the capital. On that journey, the character discovers the murky side of Madrid society.


The following year, he published Noche  y Criadero de Curas,  where he again showed his opposition to the institutional structure of the church. His last novel published in life was La sima de Iguzquiza , a story set in the third of the Carlist wars.


Post mortem publications

In 1910, a year after Sawa's death, Illuminations in the Shadow was published . There, the author related his thoughts, opinions and memories. Of this book, his friend, the Nicaraguan writer Rubén Darío , was in charge of writing the prologue.


Acknowledgments

Alejandro Sawa never received the recognition he deserved, despite being one of the main writers of the Bohemian movement in Spanish literature. He ended his days in poverty, disease and madness.


The main tribute paid to him came from his friend Ramón María del Valle-Inclán, a writer and playwright whom he met in Madrid's literary gatherings. This friend was inspired by Sawa to write the leading character in one of his most outstanding works: Bohemian Lights , published in the late 1920s.


In this work, Valle-Inclán showed the last moments of Max Estrella. This character was a writer who enjoyed fame in distant times and who at the end of his life lost his sight and reason. These traits, along with the character's personality, refer to Sawa's hapless ending.


The success of Max Estrella attracted attention to Sawa, who little by little became more recognized.


Another author who included it in his writings was Eduardo Zamacois. Also Pío Baroja in The Tree of Science  and Antonio Machado, who wrote him an emotional poem upon learning of his death.


In 2008, university professor Amelina Correa Ramón unveiled her exhaustive research on Sawa's life. This was published under the name Alejandro Sawa. Luces de bohemia  and awarded that same year with the special prize for biographies Antonio Domínguez Ortiz.


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Douglas McGregor: Biography, Theory X and Y

 Douglas Murray McGregor (1906-1964) was an American industrial engineer and psychologist who lived in the first half of the 20th century. He had an apparently simple existence, although a very deep vocation of service led him to make transcendent contributions at the business level.


He walked the path of education and delved into a philosophy of productivity. Although his written work was not copious, it was so forceful that it transcended the vision of human resource management.


This man also had a posture towards life that made him exist with inner intensity. With this, he generated friction with the most conservative sectors of his time.


McGregor developed Theory X and Theory Y, standing alongside characters like Abraham Maslow . Together they opened a new and visionary path for business administration, and they have already advanced towards the humanization of those who build today's world with their workforce.


Biography

Douglas McGregor was born in Detroit in 1906, a city that is part of the northern state of Michigan. During that year, that city lived in full industrial explosion.


Being next to a lake that had a river channel directly with New York, it became a business emporium. In less than 40 years it had grown almost eight times in population and four times in size.


The majority of Detroit's population was white Anglo-Saxon. The huge factories allowed the emergence of a very wealthy and powerful business class. There also grew a middle class made up of the managers and foremen of the companies and their families.


The industrial city also became the arrival point for many immigrants, mainly white Europeans: Irish, Scots and Italians. Precisely, Douglas McGregor was born into a family of Scottish origin, white and Protestant. That marked his existence and work.


His grandfather created the McGregor Institute and it was later run by his uncle and father. It was a center to house workers who came to the city attracted by the possibility of finding employment. In his teens, Douglas worked there as a night receptionist. In addition, he played the piano for the residents.


At one point in his life, at the age of 17, he considered becoming a preacher without a temple, but it was other directions of his existence that led him to be a recognized management theorist.


Detroit, the city that shaped it

Detroit had wood, salt, copper and steel, which gave it the opportunity to generate a significant chemical and pharmaceutical industry. With chemicals and salt paint and glass were made, with wood car bodies and wheels.


By the beginning of the 20th century, this city had become a great attraction for unskilled labor. Henry Ford founded his plants to make automobiles there.


It was the research capital for online production, mechanization, and unskilled labor. Detroit went on to become the third industrial city in the US It was also the fourth largest in population, with almost a million people.


In 1919, 27% of the inhabitants were African Americans from the South, from slave plantations, with very little academic training. 


While working at the McGregor Institute, Douglas was studying industrial engineering at Wayne State University. Then he began to work in a gas station and quickly rose to positions: he became responsible for the administration of all the service stations in the region.


At this stage in his life, Douglas married and continued his studies.


In the period between World War I and World War II, the United States suffered a great economic recession. McGregor returned to the family institute where he organized meals for the unemployed, more than 50,000 in the city.


When Detroit returned to its productive normality, McGregor traveled to Harvard University, in the neighboring state of Massachusetts. There he did a master's degree and a doctorate in psychology. He also served as a teacher at the same university.


Performance in academic and work spaces

In 1937, at age 31, McGregor created a chair of Industrial Relations at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MIT. In addition, he became an industrial relations consultant for the Dewey and Almy Chemical Company, a manufacturer of sealants and glues.


In that job he was in charge of the issue of wages and salaries. He also negotiated contracts, was responsible for job training and foremen training.


Douglas McGregor specialized in both the training processes of workers and the problems of the labor structure. His expertise was such that both employers and unions requested his mediation in labor disputes.


At age 41, he became president of Antioch College in Yellowsprings, Ohio. There he made great strides in relation to the civil rights of workers. Antioch was the first educational institution to receive African Americans for teacher training.


From there, McGregor began a new battle: to get the placement of his white school graduates.


He also had to face the investigations of the Committee on Anti-American Activities, of the House of Representatives of the US Congress. This committee required him to expel student activists from the left.


According to his own writings, that stay at Colegio Antioch gave him extensive experience on the subject of organizational leadership. He focused on decision-making and procedures for analyzing situations.


Revolutionizing labor relations

After six years working at Antioch College, McGregor returned to MIT. He assumed the position as a faculty member at the Sloan School of Management.


He then convinced former Dewey & Almy workers union accountant Joe Scalon to join the teaching team. In this context McGregor developed a new language in the field of labor relations.


He wrote several books and released a treatise on Theory X and Theory Y.


Death

He died of a heart attack at the age of 58, in 1964. His vision, however, keeps his presence alive in the academic and work world.


In his honor, the University of Antioch is now called McGregor University.


Theory X

McGregor took up Maslow's studies and developed several studies that ended up becoming his work and reason for life. He then worked with the human side of the company, industrial psychology and the necessary conditions to be a professional administrator. He then generated a theoretical work comparing what he called a double theory, the Y and the X.


From the views of his predecessors in studies of factory work, Mc Gregor developed Theory X.


According to this theory, most people are disgusted with work. Therefore they will do everything possible to avoid it, hence the workers must be forced with punishments to do so.


Another premise in this theory is that most people prefer to be directed, thus avoiding decision-making and responsibility quotas. In addition, for the scientists who endorse this position, ordinary people have few ambitions, which leads them to need a lot of security.


Therefore, organizations must develop very strict oversight mechanisms. That's why supervisors and continuous reviews are necessary.


As a consequence, specialists believed that workers should be trained in repetitive tasks. Thus, automatic responses could be obtained and with them improve efficiency.


They called that certainty parameters. That is, in the face of such pressure, and with specific training, it is almost certain that a certain response will be obtained.


Theory Y

In Theory Y, a different vision of the human being is proposed; I know that people like to take risks and the answers are not always the same in similar circumstances. Therefore, workers exist in a state of permanent uncertainty.


On the other hand, it is considered that physical and intellectual work activity is normal, it is equal to that of play or rest, so that wear and tear is not a punishment, it is typical of existence itself. Consequently, if people make a profit from work, they will gladly do so.


If the workers, consequently, have their own choice, then it is not logical to punish them so that they work. Simply, people can direct their activity, and self-control according to their goal.


Based on this, if the organization presents the worker with the appropriate rewards, he will take them on as a personal challenge.


Thus, the properly motivated worker will not only accept responsibility but will seek new goals. Your level of learning will be higher and you will find solutions that you will bring to the organization.


Theory X vs. Theory Y

According to McGregor, organizations that are managed on Theory X, only take advantage of a small part of human capacity. Hence the urgent need to set aside the principle of authority. This principle must be replaced by a motivational one, integrating the interests of the worker and the organization.


The principle of integration entails that of self-control. The person, having his share of responsibility within the organization, will strive to meet his own goals.


Theory Y establishes the urgency of command bodies to learn to delegate. Thus the worker will be able to assume his quota and even take on new challenges. This will benefit both the worker and the organization.


The satisfaction of the needs of both will allow a continuous evolution for mutual benefit.


McGregor's Humanistic Sense

Some detractors have accused Douglas McGregor of manipulating the worker-organization relationship, but it is no less true that his vision is much more humanistic than that of classical theory.


Among the conclusions reached and advised by McGregor, is the need to create achievement motivation programs. That is, workers must be encouraged to recognize their potential and develop them.


Thus, organizations need to develop manuals and procedures so that people have tools to advance their own achievements. That is, the organization must generate opportunities, dilute obstacles and promote the personal development of its workers.


Followers of Theory Y have spoken, starting with McGregor, of management by objectives as opposed to management by control.


Among the contemporary views of McGregorian approaches are delegation and decentralization. Likewise, the expansion of labor limits and the promotion of participation in decision-making are proposed.


The evaluation and co-evaluation of achievements, and the application of new ideas are also premises of this managerial vision.


Ultimately, the management of McGregor organizations delves into the human side of those who work in them. People count and are invited to participate. Ideas are respected and a co-responsible and self-planning action of all members of the company is promoted.


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The 11 Main Principles of Administrative Control

 The principles of administrative control are the general rules to be followed in the process of analyzing whether the actions are being carried out as planned and taking the necessary corrective measures to confirm the planning.


Managing means trying to make the best use of available resources to achieve the business objective . Therefore, the administration includes all the operations of the company.


Administrative controls are the set of procedures necessary for administrative and economic efficiency. As an integral part of an organization's internal control system, its objective is to ensure the full and timely implementation of management's policies and plans.


Some examples of administrative controls include procedural changes, employee training, and installation of warning signs.


The basic principles of administrative control can be grouped into eleven categories, reflecting its purpose and nature, structure and process. These principles of administrative control are detailed below.


Basic principles of administrative control

Goal assurance principle

The basic objective of administrative control is the achievement of objectives. This is done by detecting flaws in the plans.


Potential or actual deviations from the plans must be sufficiently detected to allow effective corrective action.


Controls efficiency principle

An administrative control system must detect and highlight the causes of deviations from the plans with the minimum possible costs.


The principle of efficiency is particularly important in control, because the techniques tend to be expensive and cumbersome.


A manager can be so engrossed in control that he may spend more than necessary to detect a deviation. Controls that seriously interfere with the authority of subordinates or with the motivation of those who execute the plans are inefficient.


Control responsibility principle

The main responsibility for exercising control rests with the manager in charge of executing the plans. Their responsibility cannot be abrogated or annulled without changing the structure of the organization.


The responsibility to control must be given to specific people at each stage of the operation.


This simple principle clarifies the rarely understood role of controllers and control units.


These agencies act as a service that provides control information. However, they cannot exercise control unless they are given managerial authority and responsibility for things controlled.


Prevention principle

Control, like planning, must be forward-looking and preventive. This principle has often been neglected, largely because control has relied more on statistical and accounting data, rather than on forecasts and projections.


Although the forecasts are not accurate, they are better than the historical records. Ideally, a control system should provide instant feedback to correct deviations from desired performance as soon as they occur.


If this is not possible, the control should be based on forecasts, in order to anticipate deviations over time. More attention should be paid to preventing deficiencies than to remedying them after they occur.


For example, cash forecasts help maintain the solvency of businesses by anticipating and preventing cash shortages.


Direct control principle

The vast majority of controls in use today are based on the fact that humans make mistakes. They are often used as indirect checks to detect errors, often after the fact.


Wherever possible, direct controls aimed at preventing errors should be used. Improving the quality of managers can minimize the need for indirect controls. High-quality managers make very few mistakes and carry out all their functions to the best advantage.


Principle of reflection of plans

Control is the task of ensuring that the plans are carried out effectively. Therefore, control techniques must reflect the specific nature and structure of the plans.


The clearer and more comprehensive the organization's plans are, and the more controls are designed to reflect these plans, the more effective the controls will be in meeting needs.


For example, cost control must be based on planned costs of a defined and specific type.


Pri ncipio Pyramid

Feedback data should first be reported at the bottom of the pyramid; that is, to supervisors and even to operational personnel at the lowest levels.


This will give employees the opportunity to control their own situations, as well as speed up corrective actions.


Organizational suitability principle

An administrative control system conforms to the area of ​​administrative authority and should reflect the structure of the organization.


When the administrative control system is adapted to the structure of the organization, it determines the responsibility of the action and facilitates the correction of the deviation of the plans.


Similarly, the information for evaluating performance against plans must be tailored to the position of the manager who will use it. In other words, all figures and reports used for control purposes must be in organizational terms.


Principle of individuality of controls

Controls become effective when they are consistent with the position, operational responsibility, competence, and the needs of the individual concerned.


The scope and detailed information required vary by level and function of management.


Similarly, different managers prefer different forms and units of information reporting. Therefore, the controls must meet the individual requirements of each manager.


Critical point control principle

All operations have certain vulnerable or critical points. It is these that cause the most problems and lead to large deviations.


A manager, while exercising control, must focus on the factors that are critical to evaluating performance.


It would be unnecessary and uneconomical for a manager to verify every detail of performance. Therefore, you must focus your attention on critical performance points.


Principle of action

Control turns out to be a waste of time if corrective action is not taken. Corrective actions may include rethinking plans, reorganization, replacement or training of a subordinate, motivation of staff, etc.


Control is justified only when indicated deviations from plans are corrected through proper planning, organization, staffing and direction.


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