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20 Most Important Greek Goddesses

The Greek goddesses resided in the kingdom of heaven, on Mount Olympus, they had special powers and could also control specific aspects of human life. These goddesses in Greek mythology were highly revered and had great symbolic significance.

Hestia


Also known as the ancient Greek goddess of the hearth, Hestia was the oldest among the first Olympian brothers. His brothers were Zeus, Poseidon, and Hades. It is believed that there were three virgin goddesses in ancient Greek mythology and Hestia was one of them (the other two were Athena and Artemis).

Poseidon and Apollo pursued her relentlessly, as they both wanted to marry her. But she kept the oath she had made to Zeus that she would always remain pure and unblemished and therefore never entered into a marital union. Hestia symbolized the warmth of the house, the burning fire in the hearth.

Most of the ancient Greeks believed that she was the divine representation of the tranquility of a normal domestic life. Despite this, historical and archaeological evidence shows that his pilgrimage never took off. In fact, it is even said that she was removed from the Olympian gods, and her place given to Dionysus.

Hebe


The youngest daughter of Zeus and Hera, Hebe, was considered the godly personification of youth and eternal beauty. It is labeled as the goddess of youth in Greek mythology.

Its name means "youth" in the Greek dialect and many believed that it could even restore youth back to old people.

His role on Mount Olympus was to serve the nectar that made the Olympian gods immortal. Despite being worshiped as a deity who could bless with youth, she was more involved in the daily tasks of Olympus, was Hera's maid and even prepared the royal chariot. Later she married the very popular demigod Hercules and had two sons with him: Alexiares and Aniceto.

Nemesis


Nemesis was the goddess of divine retribution and vengeance, showing her wrath to any human being who displayed arrogance before the gods. She was considered a goddess who had no regrets in her decisions.

Nemesis was a goddess widely represented in Greek tragedies and various other literary works, being the deity who would give what was due to the protagonist. She was often called the "goddess of Rhamnous", an isolated place in Attica. It was believed that she was the daughter of the primordial god Oceanus. However, according to Hesiod, she was the daughter of Erebus and Nyx.

A myth about the goddess Nemesis is the myth of Narcissus, a young man who was very arrogant and despised those who loved him. Nemesis led him to a pool, where he saw his reflection and fell in love with her.

Unable to abandon the reflection of his beloved, he died there. According to another myth, Nemesis created an egg, from which two sets of twins hatched; one set was Helen of Troy and Clytemnestra, and the other was the gods Castor and Pollux.

Artemis


The twin sister of Apollo and the daughter of Zeus and Leto's love, Artemis, is popularly known as the goddess of the hunt, forests and hills, the moon, and archery. It is one of the most respected deities of ancient Greece.

Artemis was not only the goddess of the hunt, but she was also known as the goddess of wild animals, the desert, childbirth, and virginity. In addition, she was the protector of young children and was believed to bring relief from women's illnesses.

In literature and art she was depicted as a huntress carrying a bow and arrow. Artemis was a virgin and attracted the attention and interest of many gods and men. However, only his hunting companion, Orion, won his heart. Orion is believed to have been accidentally killed by Artemis herself or by Gaia, the primordial goddess of Earth.

She was an important goddess in the lives of women, especially when it came to marriage and young children.

Atenea


Athena, was a very important goddess, she was the Greek goddess of wisdom, courage, inspiration, civilization, law and justice, strategic warfare, mathematics, strength, strategy, the arts, trades and the ability.

She is known more specifically for her strategic prowess in warfare and is often portrayed as the companion of heroes and is also the patron goddess of heroic endeavor. Athena was born to Zeus after she experienced a headache.

She did not have a mother, but one of the most cited stories is that Zeus lay with the titanic Metis, the goddess of cunning thought and wisdom, and as he feared that Metis would have a son from him who would be the one to replace him, he swallowed her and then she acquired the attribute of childbirth and gave birth to Athena by her head.

Athena was the female counterpart of Ares. She came out of the head of Zeus, fully adult and dressed in armor and was Zeus's favorite daughter. According to Homer's account in the Iliad, Athena was a fierce and ruthless warrior. In the Odyssey, she was a goddess full of rage and she was ruthless.

Known for protecting civilized life, she was also the Goddess of the City. According to some sources, Athena was praised for her compassion and generosity. Athena was a patron of the arts and crafts, especially when it came to spinning and weaving. Athena embodied wisdom and rational thinking.

She was the guardian of the city of Athens and the Parthenon served as her temple. She is one of three virgin goddesses; The other two were Hestia and Artemis. Athena invented the flute, but she never played it. Zeus trusted her to wield the aegis and its beam. Its most important festival was the Panathenaea, which was held annually in Athens.

Hera


Also known as the goddess of marriage and birth, Hera was the wife of Zeus and that bond made her the queen of all gods. Being the divine representation of marriage, she always showed a special interest in protecting married women and preserving the sacred bond that ignites when two souls are tied in a marital relationship.

She ruled over the heavens and the mortal world long before her marriage to Zeus. Even the mighty Zeus feared him. In her utter anger and anguish over Zeus' never-ending affairs, she would blindly punish others in the name of justice.

Hera was a jealous wife and fought with Zeus frequently over his extramarital infidelities and illegitimate children. For this reason, she was also known to punish unfaithful husbands.

She was the protector of women, presiding over marriages and births. While Hera was worshiped throughout Greece, temples were erected in her honor at Argos and Psalms. The peacock was sacred to her.

Aphrodite
Aphrodite is the Greek goddess of love, beauty and eternal youth. According to Hesiod's theogony, he was born from the foam in the waters of Paphos, on the island of Cyprus. He supposedly rose from the foam when the Titan Cronos killed his father Uranus and threw his genitalia into the sea.

However, according to Homer, Aphrodite may be the daughter of Zeus and Dione. Many gods believed that her beauty was such that their rivalry for her provoked wars between the gods, and because of this Zeus married Aphrodite to Hephaestus, who was no greater threat because of his ugliness and deformity. Despite this marriage, Aphrodite had many lovers.

Asteria


She was a second generation goddess of the Titan gods, daughter of Ceo and Phoebe.

Asteria was the goddess of the night, revered as the dark goddess of necromancy, falling stars, night oracles and prophecies.

After the fall of the Titans, Zeus chased Asteria through the sky, but she escaped him by transforming into a quail and jumping into the sea to become the island of Delos. His sister Leto later gave birth to Apollon on the island.

Demeter


Demeter is the goddess of the harvest and presides over the grains and fertility of the land. She was also the goddess of sacred law, and the cycle of life and death. She was the daughter of Cronos and Rhea.

He had a daughter with the God Zeus; Persephone After Hades kidnapped Persephone, Demeter was grieved. The land was rendered barren by her neglect and the winter season and its manifestations were a reflection of Demeter's emotional state during her absence.

She revealed to man the art of cultivation. Only women attended the thesmophoria, a fertility festival held in honor of Demeter.

Elpis


It is the spirit and personification of hope. She and the other daemons were trapped in a box by Zeus and entrusted to the care of the first woman, Pandora.

When Epimetus opened the box, all the spirits escaped except Elpis (hope), who stayed to comfort humanity. Elpis was depicted as a young woman carrying flowers in her arms. Its opposite was Moros, the spirit of hopelessness and doom.

Gaia
The Greek goddess of the Earth. Known as the great mother of all and is often referred to as "Mother Earth." She created herself out of the primal chaos.

From her fertile womb all life sprouted, and for Mother Earth all living things must return to her after their assigned life span ends.

Nike


The goddess Nike was the winged goddess of victory, both in war and in peaceful competition. When Zeus was gathering allies at the beginning of the war against the Titans, Styx brought his four sons Nike (Victory), Jealousy (Rivalry), Kratos (Strength), and Bia (Strength).

All four became sentinels to the throne of Zeus. At first she was inseparably connected and confused with Pallas Athena. Nike appears wearing a palm, branch, crown, or caduceus of Hermes in works of art.

She is also seen erecting a trophy or recording a victory over a shield. It is frequently seen hovering with its wings spread over the victor in a competition.

Nike gradually came to be recognized as a kind of mediator of success between gods and men, not only in war, but in all kinds of human endeavors.

Peito


Peito was the Greek goddess of persuasion and seduction and had a charming voice. She was a close companion of the goddess Aphrodite. It is generally depicted as a woman fleeing the scene of a rape.

Hesiod quotes Peito and identifies her as one of the three thousand daughters of Oceans and Tethys. Although this goddess did not wield much power beyond her small sphere of influence, she is nevertheless an important figure in myth, legend, and religion.

Rea


Rhea was the goddess of nature, daughter of the goddess of the Earth Gaia and Uranus, god of the sky, and was known as "the mother of the gods." Rhea was one of the titans, she was the sister and wife of Cronos, also a titan.

She was responsible for how things flow in the kingdom of Cronos (her name means "what flows"). Rea and Cronos had six children; Hestia, Hades, Demeter, Poseidon, Hera, and Zeus.

Cronos, fearful of being overthrown by his sons, decided to swallow them all. However, he was tricked by Rhea, who managed to save Zeus from his father. When Zeus grew up, he forced his father to give back his brothers and eventually overthrew him.

Although Rhea was considered the "mother of gods", she did not have a strong cult or many followers. He had a temple in Crete, the place where he hid Zeus to save him from his father.

In art, it began to appear in the fourth century BC. However, it was often depicted with characteristics similar to those of the goddess Cybele, thus making the two goddesses indistinguishable.

Selene


Selene was the daughter of the Titans Hyperón and Teia. He had two brothers, Helios and Eos. She was the goddess of the moon, who drove each night through the skies. She was linked to Artemis, as well as Hecate; all three were considered lunar goddesses.

He had an affair with a mortal named Endymion, whom Zeus had granted the choice to know when he was going to die. Endymion chose to fall into an eternal sleep to remain eternal and immortal.

According to other sources, Selene was one of Zeus's lovers and they had several children; Pandea, which is all shiny; Ersa, the dew; Nemea, a nymph; and Dionysus, although this may be a confusion due to the resemblance between Selene and Semele.

Feme


The goddess of fame, gossip and rumor. Feme is the daughter of Gaia, and she carried the good and the bad news, since it was said that the rumors originated in the environment of the gods. She was called the messenger of Zeus.

Terpsichore


Daughter of Zeus, the goddess Terpsichore was one of the nine muses. She was the goddess of music, song, and dance. In the classical era, when the muses were assigned to specific literary and artistic spheres, Terpsichore was named the muse of song and choral dance, and represented with a lyre and plectrum.

Tyche


Goddess of prosperity and fortune. She was one of the goddesses of destiny and was therefore linked to the three destinies in ancient Greek mythology. Tique was often worshiped in cities as the guardian of good luck and prosperity.

If at some point her behavior was considered arrogant, she was severely admonished by the goddess Nemesis.

Nix
Nix represents night, beauty and power. She represents beauty because she was incredibly beautiful and portrayed as one of the most beautiful goddesses on the face of the earth. And power is one of her values, because both gods and men feared her very much.

Metis


Greek goddess of wisdom. The goddess Metis was born to the pair of titans Ocean and Thetis, probably at a similar time to Zeus and his brothers. This kinship would make Metis an Oceanid, one of the 3,000 daughters of Ocean.

The oceans were normally classified as nymphs, minor figures in Greek mythology associated with lakes, springs, and wells. Metis however, was a much more important figure, and would be named after the Greek goddess of wisdom.

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Meaning of Anthropology

 What is Anthropology:

Anthropology is a social science that is dedicated to the study of all aspects of human nature . It is a term of Greek origin composed of the words anthropos , which means 'man' or 'human', and logos , which means 'knowledge' or 'science'.


Anthropology studies human phenomena, so it takes into account both the original and ancient societies as well as the present ones. This science takes into account the evolution of the human species, ethnic diversity, cultural diversity, social customs, beliefs, transformation processes, etc.


Anthropological studies show the cultural diversity that exists and has existed throughout history, which has contributed to fostering respect and tolerance for divergent beliefs and cultures.


As a social science, anthropology is open to the integration of various disciplines that try to reflect on the biological, social and cultural dimensions. Its main areas are:


Physical or biological anthropology : studies the genetic and biological aspects of man, taking into account the evolutionary perspective and the adaptation of the species to the environment. Within this discipline, specialties such as genetic anthropology, forensic anthropology, paleoanthropology, among others, can be distinguished.

Social anthropology, cultural anthropology or ethnology : analyzes the behavior of man in society, social and political organization, social relations and social institutions. It also investigates cultures in time and space, customs, myths, values, beliefs, rituals, religion and language. From this emerge areas such as urban, kinship, philosophical or religious anthropology. Also, some authors include archeology in this category.

Linguistic anthropology: it focuses on the study and understanding of human languages ​​as systems of symbolic representation.

Origin of anthropology

The reflection on society, man and his behavior has its antecedents from Classical Antiquity through the thought of the great philosophers, especially the Greek Herodotus, considered the father of history and anthropology.


The stories of travelers, missionaries and merchants about the habits of the natives of the lands discovered after the voyages of Columbus and other navigators around the globe can also be pointed out as background.


From the 18th century, thanks to the concerns of the Enlightenment movement, the study of both the sciences and the humanities was promoted, and in them, research in the social and cultural sphere began to gain space. In this context, the debates on the human condition were very important for the development of anthropological studies.


However, anthropology as a specific field of study has its origin in the second half of the 19th century, just like sociology. It differed from this and other areas of humanistic study in the fact that, by then, anthropology was focused on the investigation of remote societies, culturally alien to Western society, which were considered "simple" or "primitive."


Throughout its first stage, anthropology was strongly influenced by social evolutionism, related to Darwin's theories about the evolution of the human species. This idea also tried to apply as a general law to study sociocultural phenomena. Furthermore, the 19th century was marked by the development of colonialism and imperialism. It is not surprising, therefore, that in its early years anthropology had an "ethnocentric" perspective.


However, from the second half of the 20th century, when modernization processes also reached distant societies, anthropology began to study all kinds of cultures, including modern ones.


Indeed, from the 20th century on, anthropology began a process of change in which its approaches, methods and purposes were transformed until it consolidated a "modern" anthropology. In this sense, it is considered that Claude Lévi-Strauss was, par excellence, one of the main drivers of this change.


Lévi-Strauss was the father of structuralism in the social sciences. In addition, he exerted a notable influence thanks to the development of his theory of the alliance, the study of the mental processes of knowledge of the human being and the structural analysis of myths.

Alejandro Sawa: biography and works

 Alejandro Sawa (1862-1909) was a Spanish writer and journalist, considered one of the main figures in the literary bohemian current of his country. As is often related to this ideology, it ended its days in a tragic and dark way.


Sawa was the quintessential icon of the lifestyle of the artist who voluntarily chooses to live outside the system. Furthermore, he sought to intermingle in a single life the sublime of the intellectual world with the thick mud of hunger and misery.


In a dark suit, Alexander wandered the nightclubs of Paris and met with other intellectual colleagues. In this way he honored the world of ideas to the detriment of the banalities of the material sphere.


Biography

Alejandro Sawa was born on March 15, 1862. He was baptized under the name of Alejandro María de los Dolores de Gracia Esperanza del Gran Poder Antonio José Longinos del Corazón de Jesús de la Santísima Trinidad Sawa Martinez.


Sawa grew up in a family with Greek descent and dedicated to the food trade. He was the first of five children, two of whom, in addition to him, showed an affinity for the literary world.


In his younger years he studied at the Seminary of Malaga. From this institution, contrary to what was expected, he left with an anti-clerical ideology by interrupting his studies. He studied law for a year, but did not complete his training in this area.


At approximately 23 years of age, he moved to the Spanish capital. In Madrid, he dedicated himself to writing his first book and during his stay he collaborated with the newspaper “el Motín” as part of the writing team.


Also, in that city, he wrote five novels. In 1890 he went to Paris, where he immersed himself in the bohemian scene. He resided in the artistic Latin Quarter.


Life in paris

Living in Paris he met Jeanne Poirier. He married her and together they had a single daughter, whom they named Elena Rosa. Those years in Paris were considered by the artist as the best of all his times.


He worked for Garnier, a famous publisher of the time that was in the process of writing an encyclopedic dictionary. During that time, he was in contact with writers from the burgeoning literary movements.


In 1896 he returned to his native country as the father of the family. After some financial difficulties, he got a job in the journalistic field with the support of his brother Miguel.


At the beginning of the new century, a hemiplegia seriously affected his mother. The disease limited his mobility and his father died shortly after. Even Sawa's own health and financial situation were deteriorating as well.


Death

At age 44, he lost his vision, which made his situation even worse. Three years later, in 1909, he also lost his sanity. Finally, he passed away on March 3, 1909. His remains received a humble burial in the Amudena cemetery, Madrid.


Plays

At the age of 16, Alexander Sawa wrote a pamphlet entitled The Pontificate and Pius IX . This was inspired by the bishop of the seminary he attended in Malaga. Seven years after this initial foray into the world of letters, he published his first novel La mujer de todo el mundo .


His first work was a critique of the double standards of high society. It had a positive reception among the dissident circles of Spanish literature of the time.


A year later, Legal Crime came to light . In this work Sawa raised the controversies between science and religion. This combination of themes was in vogue in the late 19th century when numerous scientific discoveries were made.


In 1887 he wrote Declaration of a Vanquished . The protagonist of his work was a man who traveled from the interior of the country to the capital. On that journey, the character discovers the murky side of Madrid society.


The following year, he published Noche  y Criadero de Curas,  where he again showed his opposition to the institutional structure of the church. His last novel published in life was La sima de Iguzquiza , a story set in the third of the Carlist wars.


Post mortem publications

In 1910, a year after Sawa's death, Illuminations in the Shadow was published . There, the author related his thoughts, opinions and memories. Of this book, his friend, the Nicaraguan writer Rubén Darío , was in charge of writing the prologue.


Acknowledgments

Alejandro Sawa never received the recognition he deserved, despite being one of the main writers of the Bohemian movement in Spanish literature. He ended his days in poverty, disease and madness.


The main tribute paid to him came from his friend Ramón María del Valle-Inclán, a writer and playwright whom he met in Madrid's literary gatherings. This friend was inspired by Sawa to write the leading character in one of his most outstanding works: Bohemian Lights , published in the late 1920s.


In this work, Valle-Inclán showed the last moments of Max Estrella. This character was a writer who enjoyed fame in distant times and who at the end of his life lost his sight and reason. These traits, along with the character's personality, refer to Sawa's hapless ending.


The success of Max Estrella attracted attention to Sawa, who little by little became more recognized.


Another author who included it in his writings was Eduardo Zamacois. Also Pío Baroja in The Tree of Science  and Antonio Machado, who wrote him an emotional poem upon learning of his death.


In 2008, university professor Amelina Correa Ramón unveiled her exhaustive research on Sawa's life. This was published under the name Alejandro Sawa. Luces de bohemia  and awarded that same year with the special prize for biographies Antonio Domínguez Ortiz.


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Douglas McGregor: Biography, Theory X and Y

 Douglas Murray McGregor (1906-1964) was an American industrial engineer and psychologist who lived in the first half of the 20th century. He had an apparently simple existence, although a very deep vocation of service led him to make transcendent contributions at the business level.


He walked the path of education and delved into a philosophy of productivity. Although his written work was not copious, it was so forceful that it transcended the vision of human resource management.


This man also had a posture towards life that made him exist with inner intensity. With this, he generated friction with the most conservative sectors of his time.


McGregor developed Theory X and Theory Y, standing alongside characters like Abraham Maslow . Together they opened a new and visionary path for business administration, and they have already advanced towards the humanization of those who build today's world with their workforce.


Biography

Douglas McGregor was born in Detroit in 1906, a city that is part of the northern state of Michigan. During that year, that city lived in full industrial explosion.


Being next to a lake that had a river channel directly with New York, it became a business emporium. In less than 40 years it had grown almost eight times in population and four times in size.


The majority of Detroit's population was white Anglo-Saxon. The huge factories allowed the emergence of a very wealthy and powerful business class. There also grew a middle class made up of the managers and foremen of the companies and their families.


The industrial city also became the arrival point for many immigrants, mainly white Europeans: Irish, Scots and Italians. Precisely, Douglas McGregor was born into a family of Scottish origin, white and Protestant. That marked his existence and work.


His grandfather created the McGregor Institute and it was later run by his uncle and father. It was a center to house workers who came to the city attracted by the possibility of finding employment. In his teens, Douglas worked there as a night receptionist. In addition, he played the piano for the residents.


At one point in his life, at the age of 17, he considered becoming a preacher without a temple, but it was other directions of his existence that led him to be a recognized management theorist.


Detroit, the city that shaped it

Detroit had wood, salt, copper and steel, which gave it the opportunity to generate a significant chemical and pharmaceutical industry. With chemicals and salt paint and glass were made, with wood car bodies and wheels.


By the beginning of the 20th century, this city had become a great attraction for unskilled labor. Henry Ford founded his plants to make automobiles there.


It was the research capital for online production, mechanization, and unskilled labor. Detroit went on to become the third industrial city in the US It was also the fourth largest in population, with almost a million people.


In 1919, 27% of the inhabitants were African Americans from the South, from slave plantations, with very little academic training. 


While working at the McGregor Institute, Douglas was studying industrial engineering at Wayne State University. Then he began to work in a gas station and quickly rose to positions: he became responsible for the administration of all the service stations in the region.


At this stage in his life, Douglas married and continued his studies.


In the period between World War I and World War II, the United States suffered a great economic recession. McGregor returned to the family institute where he organized meals for the unemployed, more than 50,000 in the city.


When Detroit returned to its productive normality, McGregor traveled to Harvard University, in the neighboring state of Massachusetts. There he did a master's degree and a doctorate in psychology. He also served as a teacher at the same university.


Performance in academic and work spaces

In 1937, at age 31, McGregor created a chair of Industrial Relations at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MIT. In addition, he became an industrial relations consultant for the Dewey and Almy Chemical Company, a manufacturer of sealants and glues.


In that job he was in charge of the issue of wages and salaries. He also negotiated contracts, was responsible for job training and foremen training.


Douglas McGregor specialized in both the training processes of workers and the problems of the labor structure. His expertise was such that both employers and unions requested his mediation in labor disputes.


At age 41, he became president of Antioch College in Yellowsprings, Ohio. There he made great strides in relation to the civil rights of workers. Antioch was the first educational institution to receive African Americans for teacher training.


From there, McGregor began a new battle: to get the placement of his white school graduates.


He also had to face the investigations of the Committee on Anti-American Activities, of the House of Representatives of the US Congress. This committee required him to expel student activists from the left.


According to his own writings, that stay at Colegio Antioch gave him extensive experience on the subject of organizational leadership. He focused on decision-making and procedures for analyzing situations.


Revolutionizing labor relations

After six years working at Antioch College, McGregor returned to MIT. He assumed the position as a faculty member at the Sloan School of Management.


He then convinced former Dewey & Almy workers union accountant Joe Scalon to join the teaching team. In this context McGregor developed a new language in the field of labor relations.


He wrote several books and released a treatise on Theory X and Theory Y.


Death

He died of a heart attack at the age of 58, in 1964. His vision, however, keeps his presence alive in the academic and work world.


In his honor, the University of Antioch is now called McGregor University.


Theory X

McGregor took up Maslow's studies and developed several studies that ended up becoming his work and reason for life. He then worked with the human side of the company, industrial psychology and the necessary conditions to be a professional administrator. He then generated a theoretical work comparing what he called a double theory, the Y and the X.


From the views of his predecessors in studies of factory work, Mc Gregor developed Theory X.


According to this theory, most people are disgusted with work. Therefore they will do everything possible to avoid it, hence the workers must be forced with punishments to do so.


Another premise in this theory is that most people prefer to be directed, thus avoiding decision-making and responsibility quotas. In addition, for the scientists who endorse this position, ordinary people have few ambitions, which leads them to need a lot of security.


Therefore, organizations must develop very strict oversight mechanisms. That's why supervisors and continuous reviews are necessary.


As a consequence, specialists believed that workers should be trained in repetitive tasks. Thus, automatic responses could be obtained and with them improve efficiency.


They called that certainty parameters. That is, in the face of such pressure, and with specific training, it is almost certain that a certain response will be obtained.


Theory Y

In Theory Y, a different vision of the human being is proposed; I know that people like to take risks and the answers are not always the same in similar circumstances. Therefore, workers exist in a state of permanent uncertainty.


On the other hand, it is considered that physical and intellectual work activity is normal, it is equal to that of play or rest, so that wear and tear is not a punishment, it is typical of existence itself. Consequently, if people make a profit from work, they will gladly do so.


If the workers, consequently, have their own choice, then it is not logical to punish them so that they work. Simply, people can direct their activity, and self-control according to their goal.


Based on this, if the organization presents the worker with the appropriate rewards, he will take them on as a personal challenge.


Thus, the properly motivated worker will not only accept responsibility but will seek new goals. Your level of learning will be higher and you will find solutions that you will bring to the organization.


Theory X vs. Theory Y

According to McGregor, organizations that are managed on Theory X, only take advantage of a small part of human capacity. Hence the urgent need to set aside the principle of authority. This principle must be replaced by a motivational one, integrating the interests of the worker and the organization.


The principle of integration entails that of self-control. The person, having his share of responsibility within the organization, will strive to meet his own goals.


Theory Y establishes the urgency of command bodies to learn to delegate. Thus the worker will be able to assume his quota and even take on new challenges. This will benefit both the worker and the organization.


The satisfaction of the needs of both will allow a continuous evolution for mutual benefit.


McGregor's Humanistic Sense

Some detractors have accused Douglas McGregor of manipulating the worker-organization relationship, but it is no less true that his vision is much more humanistic than that of classical theory.


Among the conclusions reached and advised by McGregor, is the need to create achievement motivation programs. That is, workers must be encouraged to recognize their potential and develop them.


Thus, organizations need to develop manuals and procedures so that people have tools to advance their own achievements. That is, the organization must generate opportunities, dilute obstacles and promote the personal development of its workers.


Followers of Theory Y have spoken, starting with McGregor, of management by objectives as opposed to management by control.


Among the contemporary views of McGregorian approaches are delegation and decentralization. Likewise, the expansion of labor limits and the promotion of participation in decision-making are proposed.


The evaluation and co-evaluation of achievements, and the application of new ideas are also premises of this managerial vision.


Ultimately, the management of McGregor organizations delves into the human side of those who work in them. People count and are invited to participate. Ideas are respected and a co-responsible and self-planning action of all members of the company is promoted.


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